Animal Nutrition in Ruminants

Topics: Nutrition, Metabolism, Nutrient Pages: 7 (2140 words) Published: June 27, 2013
ENGLISH FOR COMMUNICATION 1
UBI 3012
Title: Animal Nutrition

Prepared by:NOR ALIA BT ABD AZIZ
NUR FARDILLAH BT ADNAN
SITI AMINAH BT HASSAN
LEONG WAI HONG

Prepared for:MADAM RAJA NOOR SYUHAIDA BT RAJA YAHYA

Date of submission: 23/12/2011

CONTENTS| PAGE|
OUTLINE| 3|
INTRODUCTION| 5|
BODY * Class of nutrients * The basal metabolism * Voluntary intake * Nutritional deficiency * Balance livestock numbers and available forage| 56788| CONCLUSION| 9|
REFERENCES| 10|

OUTLINE
Title: ANIMAL NUTRITION
Thesis statement
Many factors affect the requirements of animals and the extent of nutrient utilization. In animal nutrition, there are five factors that have to be considered. It encompasses the classes of various nutrients feed, the basal metabolism, voluntary intake, maintaining a balance between livestock numbers and available forage and the nutritional deficiency. Main points

* Nutrients classes
There are seven classes of nutrients divided into two main types. Macronutrients include carbohydrates, fats, proteins, fibre and water. Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals. * The basal metabolism

The basal metabolism is refers to the differences between the animal ages, sexes and body composition. The nutrition required by animal especially in ruminants vary in many aspects. * Voluntary intake

Animals are highly selective and appear to enjoy some feeds more than others. The smell of the feeds is often the most important because animals may reject feed without tasting it. * Nutritional deficiency

The two primary causes of nutritional deficiencies in animals are those resulting from poor management and feeding practices and those caused by low-quality forage resulting from mineral deficiencies in the soil.

* Maintaining balance between livestock numbers and available forage Year-to-year and season to season fluctuations in forage production are to be expected on grazing lands. Livestock producers must make timely adjustments in the numbers of animals or in the length of grazing periods to avoid overuse of forage plants Conclusion

There are many various types of nutrient taken by animal in their feed intake. Feed intake responses in animals offered diets differ in feed energy and protein levels are influenced by the level of the first limiting feed nutrient rather than the feed energy per serve. This observation limits in feed intake effect challenges the strongly held theory that all animals will consume diets to meet their energy requirements and thereby achieve their genetic potential for growth. However, because of the important implications of these differences, both the energy and protein levels of the diet should be taken into account when formulating diets aimed at achieving optimal feed intake in animals.

TITLE: ANIMAL NUTRITION IN RUMINANTS

Nutrition can be defined as the process by which an organism obtains food to provide energy and materials for its life sustaining activities. (Curley, S., and Mark , 1990). The term nutrition includes the way an organism obtains its food and also the processes by which the nutrients in the food are broken down to simpler molecules for the utilisation by the body. Developing a good feeding and management program is important for managers to meet livestock goals and herd performance objectives. Many factors affect the requirements of animals and the extent of nutrient utilization. In animal nutrition it encompasses the classes of various nutrients feed, the basal metabolism, voluntary intake, the nutritional deficiency and maintaining a balance between livestock numbers and available forage . There are seven major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, fibres, minerals, protein, vitamin, and water. These nutrient classes are categorized in two major types: macronutrients and micronutrients. Macronutrient is required by organism in relatively large amount or micronutrient is needed in smaller...

References: 1. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_nutrition 
2. www.cargill.com/feed/
3. www.blackwellpublishing.com/journals/JPN
4. www.asas.org/jas/98meet/98rnut.pdf
5. Adam KM, Lindell KC, Kohlmeier M, Zeisel SH (April 2006). ‘Status of Nutrition Education in Medical Schools’. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 83 (4): 941S-4S
6. Jere R. Behman (1996). “The Impact of Health and Nutrition on Education”. World Bank Research Observer 11 (1): 23-37
7. Barker, Helen M. (2002). Nutrition and Dietetics for Health Care. Edinburgh : Churchill Livingstone. Page 17.
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