Leaders use many tactics to withhold power and maintain control over the ignorant people. Joseph Stalin, the leader of the USSR from 1922-1952, used many clever and sometimes gory techniques to keep his power over the Soviet people. These strategies are shown in George Orwell's allegory of the Russian revolution, Animal Farm. Napoleon, the self-proclaimed leader of Animal Farm and allegorical representation of Joseph Stalin, has quite a few crafty and cunning ways to retain his authority over the animals. For example, by only educating the piglets and dogs, Napoleon keeps the majority of the animals uneducated and ignorant and therefore easier to manipulate. By blaming mistakes and wrongdoings on Snowball, an exiled pig who is an allegorical representation of the exiled Russian leader Leon Trotsky, Napoleon is able to create a common enemy. This takes the blame off of himself and instills a fear in the animals, making it easier for Napoleon to control the public. Finally, he trains puppies to become attack dogs and uses them as a police force, forcing the animals obey his every word by fear of bodily harm. By keeping the masses ignorant and afraid, Napoleon is able to retain his power over Animal Farm.
Since he restricts formal education to the piglets and dogs, Napoleon is able to keep the remaining animals uneducated and docile, using their stupidity to his advantage. For example, after Napoleon murders many of the animals who are supposedly in league with Snowball, the animals are a bit uneasy because they recall a Commandment that states, "No animal shall kill any another animal" (Orwell 58). Muriel, a literate goat, reads the Commandment after the massacre, and it says, "No animal shall kill any other animal without cause" (151). She thinks that “somehow or other the last two words had slipped out of [her] memory. But [she] saw now that the Commandment had not been violated; for clearly there was good reason for killing the traitors" (165-166). Because...
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