Prompt: Should animal experimentation be allowed to test drugs? Animal testing is the use of animals for scientific and medical research purposes. Animal experimentation is very prevalent nowadays and it became a common and an accepted means of testing by the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Animal testing, however, dates back to many centuries even before Christ. It had started in Greece as indicated by the writings and the records of Greek physicians of the third and fourth centuries BC .Aristotle and Erasistratus were probably the first ones to carry out experiments on animals. Also, the physician, Galen, known as the father of vivisection had dissected goats and pigs and compared his results to the knowledge he had about the human anatomy. This activity dates back to the second century in Rome when human autopsies were not allowed by the churches. (Lpag - Biomed for the Layperson.) Such experimentation has been used to test potential drugs and develop new medicines and treatments. Animal experimentation is currently one of the most controversial topics under public scrutiny, the scientific, religious and social community. The views of the public diverge greatly whether animal experimentation leads to medical breakthroughs or such progress is achievable by other means. The views depend on one’s own ethical and moral values and standards. Although many people believe that animal experimentation should be carried out and is justified due to several reasons, animal experimentation should be abolished because it is a very cruel and immoral method of testing, it is unnecessary, unreliable, and may lead to the experimenters becoming inhumane. Animal experimentation is a very cruel and immoral method of testing. Just as humans have rights to live and choose their own way of life, humans should realize and provide animals with the same rights. Animal rights are usually ignored just because of their inability to reason. This inability should not be a factor that justifies animal tests. Analogously if a mentally ill or an insane person can have the same rights as a normal human being then animals have the same rights which are violated by animal tests. In addition, just as it is morally wrong to subject humans to pain it is wrong to do it to animals. The nineteenth century utilitarian, Jeremy Bentham, who is an advocate of animal rights and welfare once questioned about animals that it is not “Can they reason? Nor can they talk? But, Can they suffer? (Andre, Claire, and Manuel Velasquez) The answer to this question is straightforward that animals do suffer and in fact they do feel pain. It is just that they are ignored because animals do not have a voice and that they cannot reason. There is also research that proves that mice and other animals do experience various intensities of pain and many of the emotions that are considered unique to humans. They also respond to pain similarly to humans such as abnormal postures, vocalizations, aggression, physiological and endocrine responses. Discomfort of mice is pretty evident by the facial expressions (expressions very similar to humans) when they are subjected to pain ( Ferdowsian, Hope; Human and Animal Research Guidelines: Aligning Ethical Constructs With New Scientific Developments). Pain is an intangible quantity and therefore it cannot be observed by the experimenters. However, this pain should not be overlooked and ignored. In addition, animal experimentation is unnecessary because alternatives exist. Alternative methods include micro dosing, MRI scanning, and computer modeling .There has been research that proves that alternatives can be more accurate than animal tests and instead of reducing the animals required in animal tests, those methods can render the animal tests as unnecessary. For example there was research published in the BMC Genomics journal by BioMed Central open that had revealed that the response of the laboratory grown human cells can be used to classify...
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