Animals have been used in experiments and research for centuries. The earliest references to animal testing are found in the writings of the Greeks in the third and fourth centuries BC and using animal continuous increasingly to the present time. When the first rockets were launched there was a chimpanzee in this vehicle which went to death. In order to find new treatments, bacteria or viruses carrying disease were injected to laboratary animals. Many scientists had done vivisection to understand human’s physiology. Today animals are still used in the experiments and tests such as medical and veterinary research, drug research, agricultural experiments, household product tests, warfare and space research, psyhology expriments and genetic engineering research. According to BUAV (British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection) (n.d. ), almost three million animals are used for experiments in the UK every year. Therefore an animal dies in a laboratory somewhere in the UK every 12 seconds (n.pag.). As a result of all these reasons mentioned above people can not decide whether animal experiments should be done or not. Advocates of animal experiments claim that animals’ genes and psyhologies are like us and these similarities bring scientists great facilities for their researches about human health. And also they are likeminded that using human beings in some studies is very unethical instead of using animals. On the other hand, proponents of banning animal experiments argue that, these experiments are very barbaric and also useless. They defend using other applicable methods and developing these inoffensive methods. In the light of all this information the aim of the literature part of this paper is to answer the fallowing question. •
According to medicine authorities, why are animal experiments useful and indispensable? *A variety of reasons have been pointed to explain why animal experiments are useful and indispensable. In the past many treatment methods have been found for dangerous diseases that killed millions of people thanks to the animal experiments. EFPIA (The European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries Associations) (2004) mention this topic like that; many vaccines for fatal diseases such as rabies, polio, diphteria, rubelle, measles, mumps, hepatitis and meningitis are found by animal researches. Studying on lab animals, the role of insulin in diabetes and role of cholesterol in cardiovascular diseases are discovered. In addition to these finds, trying to perform surgery on animals, it was taken the first step of present organ transplant (p.2). Likewise, McGuaire, R. (1998) gave some striking suppositions in his presentation; chemotheraphy which save children patients of lymphocytic leukemia would not be known by doctors, 60 million Americans would risk death from heart attack, stoke or kidney failure because they would not have medication to control their high blood pressure, if animals are not used in researches (n. pag.). *Other critical point is that nobody wants to use “no tested” products and firms want to make their products more safe and reliable. And also testing these products on human beings is illegal and unethical. Because of these reasons animals become an important part of product testing. CBC News (2003) said that acording to cosmetic industry in order to determine chemicals which cause cancer or allergy, animal testing is best way. And they also said that animal testing has been key in developing, for example better toothpaste, safer sunscreen. Furthermore again in this news it is given that 38,000 animals die every year in the EU because of cosmetic testing (n. pag.). *Other idea of proponents of animal experiments is that similarities between genes and organs of animals and human beings make animals good model for researches. Americans for Medical Progress (2006) said that research animals have a complex living systems which enable to interact or...
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