Class: Science and Society SC/SO 137
Teacher: Laurence E. Heglar, Ph.D.
ANIMAL CLONING: SHOULD BE USED AND PRACTICED TO HELP THE HUMAN NATURE
In biology, cloning is the generation of an organism, or even a single cell, with the same genetic material (DNA) of another organism. The process of cloning a plant is relatively simple compared to cloning an animal or a human being. When two animals reproduce and an offspring is born, their genes are a mixture between the DNA of the male and the female. Being a mixture of the two DNAs the offspring cannot be considered as a clone. Nowadays, however, advanced special techniques make it possible to withdraw the DNA from a mother 's egg cell 's and replace it with the DNA extracted from a cell of the individual to be cloned. The male or female donor and the relevant offspring will therefore have the exact same genetic material.
There are three different types of artificial cloning: gene cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. Gene cloning produces copies of genes or segments of DNA. Reproductive cloning produces copies of whole animals. Therapeutic cloning produces embryonic stem cells for experiments. Gene cloning- also known as DNA cloning- is a very different process from reproductive and therapeutic cloning. Reproductive and therapeutic cloning shares many of the same techniques, but are done for different purposes.
Since the birth of Dolly - the first mammal to be cloned- animal cloning is a subject of ethical debates. Whether to use animals for research or new business applications or not is a controversial issue. This study will analyze in details cloning by sketching out a brief history of the cloning of animals. By illustrating the latest news and discovery of the field I will then draw my conclusions on whether cloning should be used and practiced to help the human nature or not.
The history of animals '
References: http://www.rferl.org/content/article/1060404.html (acces:10/04/2012) F.D.A (By NICK SQUIRES) (acces:17/04/2012) http://www.nzherald.co.nz/technology/news/article.cfm?c_id=5&objectid=10111371 http://www.euractiv.fr/clonage-animal-echec-negociations-bruxelles-article(acces:22/04/2012) First cloned endangered species dies 2 days after birth (By[pic][pic]KATE TOBI) (acces:20/04/2012) http://articles.cnn.com/2001-01-12/nature/cloned.gaur_1_egg-cell-gaur-philip-damiani?_s=PM:NATURE From Dolly to Noah - a history of animal cloning (acces:12/04/2012) http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1495535/From-Dolly-to-Noah-a-history-of-animal-cloning.html Mammoth 'could be reborn in four years ' (By JULIAN RYALL) (acces:19/04/2012) By GINA KOLATA) (acces:19/04/2012) http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/15/science/15primate.html http://www.endanimalcloning.org/images/cloningforfood.pdf (acces:23/04/2012) Scientists to Clone Woolly Mammoth in Five Years (By SARAH JACOBSSON PUREWAL) (acces:20/04/2012) http://www.pcworld.com/article/216872/scientists_to_clone_woolly_mammoth_in_five_years.html The Big Question: Could cloning be the answer to saving endangered species from extinction? (By STEVE CONNOR) (acces:21/04/2012)