Homework Chapter 1 & 2
Monday & Wednesday 5:40pm-9:00pm
Module 1.1 Beginnings
L01 & L02
1. Three assumptions made by lifespan develop mentalists are: (1) a focus on human development, (2) an understanding of stability in addition to growth and change and (3) the perception that development persists throughout our entire life 2. Stages of the life span such as adolescence and middle age are universal across cultures and stable across history. FALSE 3. The time when children utter their first complete sentence is an example of: an age-graded influence.
L03 & L04
1. Grady believes that human development occurs in small, measurable amounts. His sister Andrea disagrees and suggests that human development is more distinct and steplike. Their argument is most reflective of the continuous and discontinuous issue. 2. A critical period is a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequence. 3. Nurture refers to traits, abilities, and capacities that are inherited from one’s parents. False (nature)
Module 1.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Lifespan Development.
L05 & L06
1. Theories are organized explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest and provide frameworks for understanding the relationship across variables. 2. The behavioral perspective suggests that the key to understanding one’s actions involves observation of those actions and the outside stimuli in the environment 3. Which of the following is NOT a concern with Piaget’s cognitive perspective? Cognitive development does not appear to be as discontinuous as Piaget suggested.
L07 & L08
1. According to the humanistic perspective, people reject the urge to seek love and respect from others and strive to achieve personal independence free of societal interconnections. False 2. Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological approach and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory fall under the category of the perspective. Contextual 3. The researcher most closely associated with me evolutionary perspective is Konrad Lorenz.
Module 1.3 Research Method.
L09 & L10
1. Consider the following steps of the scientific method and rank them from first to last. 2. Identifying questions of interest.
3. Formulating an explanation.
4. Carrying our research that either lends support to the explanation or refutes it. 5. In order to make a prediction in such a way that permits it to be tested, one must make a(n): Hypothesis. 6. A researcher stands near an intersection and writes down the time it takes for the lead driver to start up after the light turns green. The researcher records the gender and approximate age of the driver. This researcher is most likely engaged in an ethnography. 7. Researchers using correlational methods typically use a study group and a control group to isolate cause-and-effect relationships. False
L11 & L12
1. If a control group is not used in an experiment, the researcher cannot rule out the possibility that something other than the treatment produced the observe outcome. True 2. In a(n) experiment, an investigator devises two conditions (treatment or control) and compares the outcomes of the participants exposed to those two different conditions in order to those two different conditions in order to see how behavior is affected. 3. In a sequential research study, researchers are interested in measuring change in a single group of subjects over time.
Module 2.1 Prenatal Development Difficult Decisions.
L01, L02 & L03
1. Sex cells (the ova and the sperm) are different from other cells because they: have twice the 46 chromosomes necessary so that when the cells combine and material is “spilled”, the appropriate number of chromosomes will still be there. 2. According to Mendel, when competing traits are both present, only one trait, also known as dominant trait, can be expressed. 3. Just because a disorder has genetic roots does not mean that environmental factors do not also play a role. True
L04 & L05
1. Most behavioral traits are a product of genetic influence and environmental factors. This is also known as multifactorial transmission. 2. Instead of asking if behavior is caused by genetic or environmental influence, we should be asking how much of the behavior is caused by genetic factors and how much is caused by environmental factor. True 3. According to psychologist Jerome Kegan, differences in temperament between Chinese and American children suggest a cultures philosophical outlook may be related to genetic factors. 4. Module 2.2 Prenatal Growth and Change
L06 & L07
1. The Fertility treatment in which fertilization is induced inside the mother’s body is known as: artificial insemination. 2. Fertilization that occurs outside the mother’s body is called: In Vitro fertilization (IVF) L08
1. Match the following descriptions of prenatal development to their appropriate labels: germinal, embryonic and fetal. This stage lasts from 8 weeks until birth and involves the differentiation of major organs: Fetal Stage. This stage lasts from 2 to 8 weeks following fertilization when the major organs and basic anatomy begin developing: Embryonic Stage The first and shortest stage, where the zygote begins to divide and grow in complexity during the first 2 weeks following conception: Germinal Stage. 2. A Terarogen is an environmental agent such as a drug, chemical, virus, or other factor that produces a birth defect.
Module 2.3 Birth and the Newborn Infant.
1. Labor proceeds in three stages. The longest stage of labor is: First stage 2. Women appear to respond differently to labor as a function of culture. True 3. The Scale measures infant health by assessing appearance (color), pulse (heart rate), grimace (reflex irritability), activity (muscle tone), and respiration (respiratory effort). apgar scale 4. Which of the following factors influence a woman’s delivery? Her preparation for childbirth
The support she has before and during delivery
Her cultures view of pregnancy and delivery.
L10 & L011
1. The amount of danger facing preterm infant largely depends on the child’s weight at birth. 2. The point at which an infant can survive prematurely is also known as the age of survivability. False 3. Define as death within the first year of life, has been declining since the 1960s. Infant Mortality
1. In order to survive the first few minutes or even days, infants are born with Reflexes , or unlearned, organized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimulate. 2. Evidence suggest that infants have size constancy, meaning that they are aware that objects stay the same size even though the size of the image under retina varies with the distance. True 3. an infant learning through Classical Conditioning learns to respond in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response