I. Andrew Jackson
a. March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845
b. 61 years old
II. No formal education; Occupation: Major General in the military, lawyer in North Carolina and Tennessee, Justice on the Tennessee Supreme Court, military governor of Florida, also became a US Senator
III. Democratic Party
IV. John Quincy Adams: Federalist, Democratic-Republican, Whig Party; Henry Clay: Whig Party
V. The main campaign issue was the Bank of the United States, Jackson's use of the spoils system and his use of the veto. Jackson opposed the idea of the Bank of the U.S.
VI. Two terms; 1829 – 1833 and 1833 – 1837
VII. First Term: John Calhoun; Second Term: Martin Van Buren
VIII. 1829: Andrew Jackson becomes president- Was the seventh president of the U.S. Some of his greatest accomplishments include reducing federal debt to only $33,733.05, the lowest it had been since the first fiscal year of 1791, and implementing the theory of rotation in office
Jackson issues a “spoils system”- The spoils system was a method of appointing officials to the government of the United States of America based on political connections rather than on impersonal measures of merit.
1830: Maysville Road Veto- Jackson's argument here is that the road will principally benefit Kentucky, rather than the remainder of the nation. He also argues that, while the greatest tax burden had been placed on the laboring classes, they have accepted the burden because it was to promote the welfare of the entire nation, rather than a portion of it. He suspects they might object to this benefit being bestowed on Maysville Kentucky and paid for by citizens of all the states.
Webster-Hayne debate- The Hayne- Webster Debate was about two men: Daniel Webster from Massachusetts and Robert Y. Hayne from South Carolina. The issue of nullification was intensely debated on the floor of the Senate in 1830. Hayne believed that nullification gave states a way to lawfully protest against federal legislation. Webster argued that the U.S. was one nation, not a pact among independent states. He believed that the welfare of the nation should override that of individual states.
1831: Nat Turner’s Rebellion- Was a slave rebellion that took place in Virginia. Led by Nat Turner, rebel slaves killed anywhere from 55–65 white people, the highest number of fatalities caused by any slave uprising in the South. The rebellion was put down within a few days, but Turner survived in hiding for over two months afterward. In the aftermath, there was widespread fear, and white militias organized in retaliation against slaves.
Black Hawk War- Brief conflict fought in between the United States and Native Americans. The war erupted soon after Natives crossed the Mississippi River into Illinois. Black Hawk's motives were unclear, but he was apparently hoping to avoid bloodshed while resettling on land that had been ceded to the United States in a disputed 1804 treaty.
1832: Samuel Francis Smith writes “America”- Samuel Francis Smith was a Baptist minister, journalist and author; is best known for having written the lyrics to "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", which he entitled America.
Worcester v. Georgia- Was a case in which the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Indians from being present on Indian lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional.
South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification- Declared the Tariff of 1828 and 1832 null and void within the state borders of South Carolina. It began the Nullification Crisis.
Jackson’s Proclamation in response to South Carolina’s ordinance- On December 10, President Andrew Jackson's proclamation against South Carolina, the Nullification Proclamation of 1832, sent a naval flotilla and a threat of sending government ground troops to enforce the tariffs. In the face of the military threat, and following a Congressional revision of the tariff, South Carolina repealed the ordinance.
Veto of bill to recharter Second Bank of the United States- Jackson vetoed a bill that would have renewed the corporate charter for the Second Bank of the United States. It was one of the most definitive acts of his presidency.
1833: Compromise Tariff- Was passed as an attempt to stop the Nullification Crisis brought on by South Carolina. It proposed to gradually lower tariff rates since southerners objected to the protectionist rates found in the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832.
Andrew Jackson begins second term as president- He is reelected and won the election handily.
Force Act- Act passed by Congress authorizing President Andrew Jackson to use military force to override South Carolina’s Ordinance of Nullification.
1834: Birth of the Whig Party- The Whig Party was a reaction to the authoritarian policies of Andrew Jackson. Opponents who gravitated to the Whig Party included Jackson critics, states’ rights advocates, and supporters of the American System. In some respects the Whigs were the descendants of the old Federalist Party, supporting the Hamiltonian preference for strong federal action in dealing with national problems.
National Trades Union established- Is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of its trade, achieving higher pay, increasing the number of employees an employer hires, and better working conditions.
1835: Samuel Colt patents the revolver- Invented the first revolver, a gun named after its inventor "Colt", and after its revolving cylinder "revolver". Samuel Colt was granted a U.S. patent for the Colt revolver, which was equipped with a revolving cylinder containing five or six bullets and an innovative cocking device.
New York Herald begins publication- It was one of the first papers created in the penny-press movement, and it developed many aspects of modern American journalism, including nonpartisan political reporting and business coverage.
Alexis de Tocqueville writes Volume I of Democracy in America- Is arguably the most perceptive and influential book ever written about American politics and society.
Beginning of Second Seminole War- Was a conflict in Florida between groups of Native Americans known as Seminoles and the United States, part of a series of conflicts called the Seminole Wars. The Second Seminole War was the most expensive Indian War fought by the United States.
1836: Beginning of the Texas War for Independence- Was the military conflict between the government of Mexico and Texas colonists that resulted in the establishment of the Republic of Texas.
The Alamo- Was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna launched an assault on the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar.
Specie Circular- Was an executive order issued by Jackson and carried out by succeeding President Martin Van Buren. It required payment for government land to be in gold and silver.
Battle of San Jacinto- Was the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution led by General Sam Houston. The Texan Army engaged and defeated General Antonio López de Santa Anna's Mexican forces in a fight that lasted just 18 minutes. About 630 of the Mexican soldiers were killed and 730 captured, while only 9 Texans died.
Arkansas enters the Union- Entered the Union as a slave state.
Michigan enters the Union- Entered the Union as a non-slave state.
IX. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831): The Cherokee Nation sought a federal injunction against laws passed by the state of Georgia depriving them of rights within its boundaries, but the Supreme Court did not hear the case on its merits. It ruled that it had no original jurisdiction, as the Cherokee were a dependent nation, with a relationship to the United States like that of a ward to its guardian. Worcester v. Georgia (1832): Was a case in which the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Indians from being present on Indian lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional. Worcester's conviction is void, because states have no criminal jurisdiction in Indian Country. Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (1837): Was a case regarding the Charles River Bridge and the Warren Bridge of Boston, Massachusetts, heard by the United States Supreme Court under the leadership of Chief Justice Roger B. Taney. The case settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract.
X. Government workers (clerks, etc) had been hereditary - son following father in the job. Jackson fired people wholesale, and hired in his cronies.
XI. Innovations in the railroad industry made it possible for subsequent presidential candidates and administrations to move quickly and comfortably about the nation addressing crowds at all their stops. This was how the "whistle-stop tour" was born.
XII. Dispute with France nearly brought the two nations to the brink of war. In an 1831 treaty, France agreed to pay claims for Napoleonic depredations on American shipping. Nevertheless, the French Chamber of Deputies refused to appropriate the necessary funds. Finally, under British urgings, the French agreed to construe a conciliatory passage in a later message of Jackson's as sufficient apology. France paid the debt and the crisis passed without repercussions.
Jackson craved the Mexican border province of Texas for the United States and he made its purchase the first priority of his presidential diplomacy. Given the instability of Mexico's government and its suspicions of American designs, a Texas negotiation required great discretion and patience.
XIII. One of the biggest conflicts Jackson had during his administration was his support of the supremacy of the Union (the federal government) over the doctrine of nullification advanced by John C. Calhoun, VP. Calhoun argued that a state could declare an act of the federal government, like a tariff, null and void within that state if the state legislature voted and declared the act unconstitutional. Jackson believed that the Constitution made the federal government supreme over the states in such matters.
Simone Fields 2
12/29/12 Ms. Ross
Part XIV: Rating of Andrew Jackson
Overall, Andrew Jackson was not an effective president. He was a very abrasive man and it is argued that he abused his power as president. Some of the negatives of his presidency include introducing the National Spoils System, destroying the Second Bank of the United States, and was largely responsible for the Indian Removal Act of 1830 and the "Trail of Tears.”
Andrew Jackson was the first President to adopt the spoils system on a larger scale in the national Government. Through using the spoils system, the president appointed his supporters who were inexperienced with government jobs and fired all the people who were capable of running a government. As a result, people who cared little for the country and more about the rewards were in power. Critics of Jackson claimed the spoils system rewarded those who had helped Jackson get elected by giving large campaign donations, in exchange for something they could provide for Jackson, or simply because they were friends of Jackson and not necessary qualified for the jobs to which they were appointed.
Destroying the Second National Bank of the United States was another reason why Jackson was not a good president. The National Bank was created to provide a standard paper currency and be a place where the Treasury could deposit money. The states currently had no standard and a great conflict erupted when the states had to conduct business with one another such as taxing goods between states. This bank greatly helped the United States and Jackson’s decision to remove it affected America for the worse.
Jackson was largely responsible for the Indian Removal Act of 1830 and the "Trail of Tears.” During Jackson’s presidency, Native Americans were treated unfairly and inappropriately. He evicted the Cherokee from Georgia and forced them west on the Trail of Tears to settle in desolate land in modern Oklahoma. Their land was then divvied up by developers and sold to whites.
As you can see, Andrew Jackson was not a good president. During his presidency, he only put his friends in government jobs, killed many Native Americans, exercised his power in government by ignoring two branches of government, was a slave owner, and broke campaign promises. This was not an impressive president and many people today are surprised that he lasted as president for as long as he did.