Andhra Pradesh (/ˌɑːndrə prəˈdɛʃ/; Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్), abbreviated A.P., is one of the 28 states of India, situated on the country's southeastern coast. It is India's fourth largest state by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city isHyderabad. Andhra Pradesh is bordered by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Orissa in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the east, Tamil Nadu to the south and Karnataka to the west. According to the Planning Commission of India, in the financial year 2011-12 the state was second in nominal GDP, and in GDP per capital it ranks fourth. Andhra Pradesh GDP in financial year 2011 was 567636 crore (US$87 billion). It is historically called the "Rice Bowl of India". More than 77% of its crop is rice; Andhra Pradesh produced 17,796,000 tonnes (19,616,732 short tons) of rice in 2006. Two of the mega cities of the state - Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam - were listed among the top 15 cities contributing to India's overall Gross domestic product. Andhra Pradesh has the longest coastline (of 972 km (604 mi)) among all the states of India. Two major rivers, the Godavari and the Krishna, run across the state. The small enclave (30 square kilometres (12 sq mi)) of Yanam, a district of Pondicherry, lies in the Godavari delta to the northeast of the state. The state comprises three regions: Telangana, Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. The state's most populous cities are Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, Guntur, Vijayawada, Rajahmundry, Warangaland Nellore (2011 census). The primary official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu and the co-official language is Urdu. Other languages often spoken in the state include Hindi, Marathi,Tamil, Kannada and Oriya. Modern history
Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagara Empire, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal. In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. TheQutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century. Although Hyderabad was founded less than 500 years ago, archaeologists have unearthed Iron Age sites near the city that could date back to 500 BCE. Approximately over 1000 years ago this region was ruled by Kakatiyas until 1310 CE, and fell under Delhi sultanate from (1310–1345), when the central sultanate became weak the Bahmani Sultan revolted against the Sultan of Delhi Muhammad bin Tughluq and established an independent state in Deccan within the Delhi Sultanates southern provinces and ruled until 1518 CE. Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, governor of Golconda, declared independence from the Bahmani Dynasty and proclaimed himself Sultan of Golcanda in that year, and he founded the Qutb Shahi dynasty. Geography and climate
Main article: Geography of Andhra Pradesh
The Mouth of the Godavari River (East) emptying into the Bay of Bengal
Greater Flamingoes(Phoenicopterus roseus) taking off Pocharam lake Geographically, Andhra Pradesh is composed of most of the eastern half of the Deccan plateau and the plains to the east of the Eastern Ghats. Andhra Pradesh is divided into three regions. The northern part of the plateau is the Telangana region and the southern part is known as Rayalaseema. These two regions are separated by the River Krishna. The third region is Coastal Andhra. The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Kadapa Basin formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral-rich area. The coastal plains are for the most part delta regions formed by the Godavari,Krishna, and Penner rivers. The Eastern Ghats are a major...
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