Ancient History Wars

Topics: Ancient Rome, Carthage, Achaemenid Empire Pages: 8 (3423 words) Published: May 28, 2014
Similarities between Conflicts:
Second Punic war and Second Persian War

The Second Punic War was led by Hannibal during 218 – 201 BC in Greece and the Second Persian War was led by Xerxes During 480 – 479 BC in Greece. Both have similarities and differences between wars. The second Punic and second Persian wars are similar in their background causes but different in their foreground causes. The conflicts have similar structural causes such as social factors, vengeance and geographical proximity but different economic causes such as Carthaginian debt and Persian indemnities. The motive of the leaders was also different such as Xerxes respecting his father’s legacy whereas Hannibal had a sworn oath and had to comply with the oath. This is also clear through the actions of both leaders Xerxes and Hannibal such as pressure and revenge and goes hand in hand with Dan Smith’s statement “Wars are conscious and consciously decided affairs” For further research ancient sources were acquired. This included two ancient sources. One of the ancient primary sources used to gain further information on the Persian wars was Herodotus. Herodotus himself was of an Ionian Greek descent and is one of the few secondary ancient sources used to gain further information and a firsthand account of the Persian wars in particular the Second Persian War (University, 2010). The motive of Herodotus was remember what happened and to explain the cause of the Second Persian Wars as he states “This is the showing-forth of the inquiry of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, so that neither what has come to be from man in time might become faded, nor that great and wondrous deeds, those shown forth by Greeks and those by barbarians, might be without their glory; and together with all this, also through what cause they warred with each other” (Grene, 1989). The perspective of Herodotus however is that of a Greek Historian who has known to collect his materials systematically, test their accuracy to a certain extent and then arrange then in a well – constructed and vivid narrative (Evans, 2006). Therefore this source is representative of the Ancient Greece society and those in favour of the Greeks. Herodotus himself was an eyewitness to the Persian wars when he was young and also interviewed eye witnesses who were involved in the Second Persian war (Hartog, 2000). This therefore adds to the reliability of the information provided as not only did he interview eyewitnesses, he was there to the Persian War as a child and recollected everything, earning himself the title of “Father of History”. On the other hand he was also considered the “Father of Lies” and he twisted the truth and was bias towards the Persians and favoured the Greeks (Hunter, 1982). Another Ancient Secondary source that was accessed was Polybius and is an important source in understanding the Second Punic War is Polybius. Polybius was a Greek Historian of the Hellenistic Period and was noted for his work “The Histories”, which covered the period of 264 – 214 BC in detail (Davidson, 2009). The motive of Polybius can be assumed to be that for Historical purposes and to provide a firsthand account of the Second Punic War. The perspective of Polybius is that of a Greek historian who was also elected Hipparchus which is also otherwise known as Calvary leader (Scott, 1979), so his knowledge about the Calvary armour used is quite extensive. This source is representative of the Greek Hellenistic period and society. The reliability of this source is extremely high because in Polybius’s time, the profession of a historian required political experience (which aided in differentiating between fact and fiction) and familiarity with the geography surrounding the subject matter to provide accurate versions of events (Scott, 1979). Polybius shows no signs of bias opinion and is very neutral and is used only for recording the events that occurred during the Second Punic war. Modern Secondary sources were also used...

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Hartog, F. (2000). the invention of history : the pre - history of a concept from homer to herodotus , history and theory. berkeley: university of california press.
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Scott, K. (1979). Polybius the rise of the roman empire. London: Penguin Classics.
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Wardsworth.T
Anonemius. (2013). The persian Wars. Retrieved 02 05, 2014, from Anonemius: http://www.anonemius.hubpages.com/hub/persian-wars
Barawanath
Boisestate. (2010). What is imperialism . Retrieved 03 12, 2014, from Biostate edu: http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/lockwoodm/Imperialism/WhatIs.htm
Burn, A
Butterfild, B. J. (1997). The persian Wars by Herodotus. Retrieved 03 06, 14, from Meadans: http://www.meandans.posc.mu.edu/tsct/ah/herodotus
Clare, J
Damen. (2013). Herodotus and the Persian Wars. Retrieved 02 27, 2014, from USU: http://www.usu.edu/markdamen/1320hist8civ/chapters/02herod.htm
Davidson, j
Evans, J. (2006). The beginnings of history : herodotus and the persian wars . campbellville: edgar kent.
Ewert, D. (13, 11 06). The persian Wars. Retrieved 02 29, 2014, from Slideshare: www.slideshare.net/dewert/521-the-oersian-wars.ppt
Go Greece
Green.P. (1996). The Greco- Persian wars . London Englan: califronia press .LTD.
Grene, D. (1989). Herodotus -The Histories . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hartog, F. (2000). the invention of history : the pre - history of a concept from homer to herodotus , history and theory. berkeley: university of california press.
Hunter, V. (1982). Past and Process in Herodotus and Thucydides. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Library Think Quest. (2009). Ancietn Greece , Persian War. Retrieved 03 02, 2014, from Think Quest: http://library,thinkquest.org/cr0210200/ancient_greece/persian_war.htm
N/A
N/A. (2013). Greco - Persian Wars. Retrieved 01 30, 2014, from History World: http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/ocref/9780191737824.timeline.0001?print.htm
Polybuis
Scott, K. (1979). Polybius the rise of the roman empire. London: Penguin Classics.
University, L. V. (2010). Persian war - Pelopanesian war. Retrieved 02 27, 2014, from LV Wilcats: www.lvwildcats.com/.../perwar_pelopwar%2010.ppt
Wardsworth.T
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