Ancient history is the study of the written past from the beginning of recorded human history to the Early Middle Ages. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, with Cuneiform script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing, from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC. This is the beginning of history, as opposed to prehistory, according to the definition used by most historians. The term classical antiquity is often used to refer to ancient history in the Old World since the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC (First Olympiad). This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece. Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in AD 476, the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD, the death of the emperor Justinian I, the coming of Islam or the rise of Charlemagne as the end of ancient and Classical European history. In India, the period includes the early period of the Middle Kingdoms, and, in China, the time up to the Qin Dynasty is included
Prehistory is a term often used to describe the period before written history. The early human migration patterns in the Lower Paleolithic saw Homo erectus spread across Eurasia. The controlled use of fire occurred about 800 thousand years ago. Near 250 thousand years ago, Homo sapiens evolves in Africa. Around 70–60 thousand years ago, modern humans migrate out of Africa along a coastal route to South and Southeast Asia and reached Australia. About 50 thousand years ago, modern humans spread from Asia to the Near East. Followed by about 40 thousand years ago, in which Europe was first reached by modern humans. By about 15 thousand years ago, the migration to the New World occurred. The 10th millennium BC, Invention of...
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