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Ancient Greek and Roman Civilization
Topics: Ancient Rome, Roman Empire, Roman Republic / Pages: 7 (1520 words) / Published: Mar 10th, 2013

HELLENIC AGE
PHILOSOPHY
• Greeks used observation and reason to find causes for what happened • Ethics and morality • In Athens, Sophism- success is more important than moral truth o Rhetoric- art of skillful speaking o Socrates- Sophist, Athenian philosopher ▪ Socratic Method- pose series of questions to students and challenge them to examine the implications of their answers o Plato- student of Socrates ▪ Emphasized the importance of reason “People could discover unchanging ethical values, recognize perfect beauty, and learn how best to organize society” ▪ Academy ▪ The Republic- vision of an ideal state (Ideal Society: Workers, Soldiers and Philosophers), talented women should be should be educated to serve the state o Aristotle- ideas of government- “How people ought to live?” ▪ Lyceum- politics, ethics, biology, literature

ARCHITECTURE AND ART • Plato “Every object on earth had an ideal form”- balance, order, and beauty

ARCHITECTURE o Perfect balance, harmony and order of the universe o Parthenon, dedicated to Athena SCULPTURE AND PAINTING o Emphasized natural poses, lifelike and idealistic o Carved gods, goddesses, athletes and famous men which shows their most perfect, graceful form

LITERATURE- classical style- elegant, balance o Epics of Homer, Sapho (love and beauty), Pindar (athletic contest) o DRAMA- most important contribution ▪ Based on popular myths and legends ▪ Discussed moral and social issues, relationship of people and gods o TRAGEDY ▪ Aeschylus (The Orosteia), Sophocles (Antigone), Euripides (The Trojan Women) ▪ Human suffering ended in disaster- stir emotions of pity and fear o COMEDIES ▪ Humorous plays that mocked people and customs ▪ Aristophanes (Lysistrata)
HISTORY
o Herodotus- Father of History- “The Persian Wars” o Importance of research and avoid bias

ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE HELLENISTIC AGE

Philip II- King of Macedonia • Conquering prosperous city states to the south • Through threats, bribery, diplomacy, he formed an alliance with many Greek city states • Battle of Chaeronea- Athens and Thebes vs. Macedonia (Philip II won the battle) • To conquer the Persian empire • He was assassinated for political reasons

Alexander the Great • Son of Philip II • Expanded the territories- conquered the Persian Empire (Asia Minor, Palestine, South Egypt, Babylon, North India) • Death of Alexander the Great led to years of disorder o Three Generals divided the empire: Macedonia and Greece, Egypt and Persia • Legacy: spread of Greek culture o Blending of cultures- Egypt and India: temples, married with a Persian women- adapted Persian customs • Hellenistic Age- new culture that emerged which blended Greek, Persian, Egyptian and Indian influences o Women learned to read and write o New Schools of Thought: Stoicism by Zeno- avoid desires and disappointments by means of acceptance, high moral standards: protect the rights of fellowmen o Advances in Learning: ▪ Mathematics: Pythagorean theorem- calculate relationships of the sides of a right triangle, The Elements (modern geometry by Euclid) ▪ Astronomy: Aristarchus (Heliocentric theory), Erastosthenes (circumference of the Earth) ▪ Science: Archimedes (Physics, use of lever and pulley) ▪ Medicine: Hippocrates (causes of illnesses and looked for cures), Hippocratic Oath

ANCIENT ROMAN CIVILIZATION

HISTORY LATINS- Tiber River • Put up Rome city when population grew and economy developed • Shared other parts of Italy to Greeks and Etruscans • Learned alphabet from Etruscans (who learned it from Greeks) • Conquered by Etruscans • 509: Romans defeated the Etruscans

THE ROMAN REPUBLIC AND EMPIRE

REPUBLIC • Set up Republic “Thing of the people” • To prevent any individual from gaining too much power, officials were elected • Senate- most powerful governing body o Members: 300 patricians (landholding upper class)- Senators, made the laws o 2 consuls were elected yearly from among the senators (business of the government, run the armies) 1 year term o In times of war, dictator may be chosen (6 months term) o Plebeians- farmers, merchants, artisans, traders- made up the bulk of the population ▪ Laws of Twelve Tables- first breakthrough in 450 BC ▪ Elected Tribunes- own officials to join the Senate, could veto- block laws harmful to plebeians, eventually handled positions like consuls, dictator • Expansion of Italy- expanded Roman power across Italy, Etruscans then Greeks o Rome’s success was due to skillful diplomacy and well-trained army o Soldiers- loyalty, courage and respect for authority o Mixed rewards with harsh punishments o Rome generally treated its defeated enemies with justice- acknowledge Roman leadership, pay taxes and supply soldiers- allowed to keep customs, money and local government o Protection and Unification: posted soldiers throughout the land, military roads
EMPIRE
1. PUNIC WARS – Rome vs. Carthage (Tunisia, owned by Phoenicians and North Africans), own colonies in Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia
Cause: expansion of territories

First Punic War: Rome defeated Carthage and won Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia
Second Punic War: Hannibal (Carthage attack Europe by passing through Spain, France, Italy- ruled for 15 years, Failed to capture Rome, Romans outflanked Hannibal by sending an army to Carthage
(Romans won, Carthage gave up all his lands except those in Africa
Third Punic War: Romans saw Carthage as a rival and wanted revenge for terrible destruction to Italy. Rome completely destroyed Carthage- masters of Mediterranean world

2. Romans defeated Alexander the Great (got Greece, Macedonia, Parts of Asia Minor (Persian Empire), Egypt, Syria
PROGRAMS IMPLEMENTED TO COLONIES ▪ Acknowledge Roman leadership ▪ Pay tax ▪ Supply soldiers ▪ Full citizenship ▪ Allowed to keep customs ▪ Posted soldiers in provinces and colonies ▪ Trade in the empire ▪ Latin as official language ▪ Some men were made slaves in latifundia (estates of rich families)

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS
TRADE- rich, gap between rich and poor
FARMING- small farmers didn’t get to compete with latifundia goods
POVERTY- Poor were forced to look for cheap labor
WEALTH led to corruption (greed and self-interest rather than simplicity, hardwork and devotion to duty)

DECLINE OF REPUBLIC:
Civil Wars- Slave Uprisings and Revolts

LEADERS:

|RISE |LEADER/ ACHIEVEMENTS |DOWNFALL |
|Elected Tribunes |Tiberius – use of public funds to buy grain to |Angered the senate, threat to its power, were |
| |feed the poor |killed by senators and thugs |
| | | |
| |Gaius Gracchus- attempted reforms, elected | |
| |tribune, called on state to distribute the | |
| |lands to poor farmers | |
|Revolt |1st Triumvirate: |Enemies stabbed Caesar to death |
| |Crassus | |
| |Gaius Pompey vs. | |
| |Julius Caesar- set out new conquests- Gaul | |
| |(France), crushed Pompey and his supporters, | |
| |absolute ruler of Rome, Julian calendar, | |
| |organized the government | |
|Inherited Julius Caesar’s throne |2nd Triumvirate: |Natural Death- “Who would rule after an |
| |Mark Anthony- chief general |emperor died?” – led to intrigue and violence |
| |Lepidus | |
| |Octavian or Augustus Caesar- grandnephew | |
| | | |
| |Mark Anthony vs. Octavian- struggle for power | |
| | | |
| |Octavia- Augustus “Exalted One”, princeps or | |
| |first citizen, marked the end of Republic- Age | |
| |of Roman Empire | |
| |Disbanded Senate | |
| |Created efficient well trained civil service to| |
| |enforce laws, high level jobs offered to men of| |
| |talent | |
| |To make tax system fair, he ordered census or | |
| |population count | |
| |Postal service and issued new coins | |
| |Built roads and temples | |
| |Start of Pax Romana | |
|Related to Augustus |JULIO- CLAUDIAN DYNASTY | |
| |Tiberius- continued policies of Augustus |Old Age |
| |Caligula- cruel and insane | |
| |Claudius- scholar, military expedition |Killed |
| |Nero- persecuted Christians burned Rome |Old Age |
| | | |
| | |Committed Suicide |
|Chosen by the Army |Vespasian- discipline of Army administrations, |End of Term |
| |put down uprisings | |
|Chosen by Senate |Nerva- defined succession of power |Natural death |
|Succession |GOOD EMPERORS | |
| |Trajan- more land North of Italy and Danube | |
| |River | |
| | | |
| |Hadrian- codified Roman law, making it the same| |
| |for all provinces | |
|Succession |Marcus Aurelius- military campaigns |killed |

PAX ROMANA- 200 years- Augustus to Aurelius “Roman Peace” (brought peace, unity, and prosperity)
1. Political Stability- senators and governors were closely monitored, armies became loyal to emperor
2. Economic sufficiency- surplus of goods, tax collection, and trade flourished
3. Cultural development- Eastern and Western culture met

ROMAN ACHIEVEMENTS: (GRECO- ROMAN CIVILIZATION)
LITERATURE, PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY • Imitated Greek styles in prose and poetry • Poetry: Virgil wrote The Aeneid- goal was to arouse patriotism and unite Rome after years of civil wars, linked to the epics of Homer o Satires- make fun of Roman society • History: Rise and Fall of Rome, Livy- patriotic feeling and restore Roman virtues • Philosophy: Stoicism- importance of duty and acceptance of one’s fate, concern to the well-being of people
ART AND ARCHITECTURE • Based on Greeks and Etruscan models • Realism, revealing an individual’s character • Roman beautified their homes with works of art • ARCHITECTURE: Improved the arch and columns; Pantheon

TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE • Engineering- structures and machines, built roads, harbors, bridges, aqueducts • Science: Ptolemy: Earth was the center of the earth o Galen- medical science, encyclopedia o Geography- maps o Pliny the Elder: compiled books: geography, zoology, botany
ROMAN LAW • Fostered unity and stability • Legal basis of Europe and Latin America o Civil Law- applied to its citizens o Law of Nations- applied to all people under Roman rule
RELIGION
• Polytheistic, gods and goddesses : Zeus and Jupiter- god of sky, Neptune and Poseidon: god of sea, Juno and Hera- marriage • Christianity- contact with Judea, Persecution of Early Christians

FALL OF ROME • Government : Leaders: struggle for power, disruptive political patterns, revolts and killings, corruption, government became more oppressive and authoritarian • Economic Problems: High taxes- support army, farmlands lost productivity, reliance on slave labor • Division of empire • Epidemic diseases • Invasions: Germanic Invasion- hired mercenaries-foreigners as soldiers • Social Causes: Upper Class devoted itself to luxury and self- interest, Values of Simplicity, Discipline, Patriotism and Devotion to duty replaced by Greed and Self-Interest • Army Deteriorates

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