Ancient Era

Topics: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Civilization Pages: 5 (1498 words) Published: August 14, 2013
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SADIKI I
12185869
TPH 110 ASSIGNMENT
SANELL VENTER
TOWN AND REGIONAL PLANNING

SADIKI I
12185869
TPH 110 ASSIGNMENT
SANELL VENTER
TOWN AND REGIONAL PLANNING

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION2
EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION2
SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION4
CONCLUSION5
Bibliography5

INTRODUCTION
About 10 000 BC people lived by hunting and gathering food and other necessities. The population level was very low and thus inspired people to live in clusters. Climate change was the foremost aspect which influenced crop harvesting because as the temperature began rising, it favoured the growth of vegetation. Due to these conditions individuals started incorporating as well as sharing ideas and this improved their daily routines and lifestyle. In addition this is known as civilization. Civilization is the development and the improvement of human potentials and lifestyles in all dimensions: physical, spiritual, intellectual, ethical and psychological (Garcia, 1991).

First civilizations developed around 3500 BC in Sumeria and Egypt. In both civilizations, a river was a locational centralizing determinant factor which played a massive role in the development of these two civilizations (Morris, 1994). First cities appeared as a result of population growth pressure and advanced building skills which came up with civilization. Civilization came up with advance in irrigation systems (agricultural revolution), invention of the writing system, institutional government, religion, surplus of food as a result of soil fertility, first written code of ethics, laws and the usage of baked bricks (Hause and Maltby, 2004). Ancient civilized societies (Sumerian and Egyptian) showed a great mixture and diversity in opinion than the societies of hunter-gatherers.

EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION
In the Egyptian civilization, the Nile River was one of the locational determinants which stimulated civilization (Morris, 1994).The availability of the Nile River eased many agricultural activities that furthered the civilization. The Nile River was the actual contributory aspect regarding improvements in the Egyptian civilization because it permitted agricultural activities to take place by supplying the community and farmers with water for irrigation since most parts of the country were dry (Hause & Maltby, 2004).Elements that critically influenced this civilization were the availability of the river, the fertile river banks and its fertile banks and the great influential leadership of powerful kings. Pharaoh who was the king of Egypt was in control of the country’s capitals, was the commander in chief and the owner of all Egypt. Egyptians worked for the king (pharaoh) and were very submissive to him because they believed he was a living god on whom the entire social class structure of people depended upon (Hause and Maltby, 2004).

In the Egyptian civilization no codes of acts and laws were drafted by the entire state democratically since the pharaoh was the commander in chief and the director of all law foundations. Pharaoh’s government was the only aspect of religion and it dominated all Egypt. Below the king was a judiciously classified hierarchy of officials, ranging according to governors of states, mayors, priests and tax collectors. The entire civilization was sustained by the work of slaves, peasants and artisans. Pharaoh ruled his kingdom through his household members and appointed officials. A life of an artisan as well as of a peasant was carefully controlled and their movements were limited (Essay Writers).

The Egyptian civilization was greatly dispersed with farmers dominating even though the farm’s harvests (products) were owned by the temple, honourable families that had farms and the state. Craftsmen, artists and farmers were contributing heavily to the state’s economy through taxes (Hause and Maltby, 2004). The Egyptian society was structured in manner that a certain class or group of people were allowed to own...

Bibliography: Hause S, Maltby W. (2004). Western Civilization, A History of European Society (2nd ed). Chicago: Thomson Wadsworth.
Garcia J.D. (1991). CIVILIZATION AND ETHICS. Retrieved February 19, 2013, from http://www.see.org/garcia/e-ct-4.htm
Morris, A. (1994). History of urban form: before the industrial revolution(3rd ed). New York: Longman Scientific and Technical.
Southall, A. (2000). The City in Time and Space. UK: University Press.
Essay Writers. (n.d.). Custom The Egyptian Civilization. Retrieved February 19, 2013, from Essay Writers: http://www.essayswriters.com/essays/History/The-Egyptian-Civilization.html
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