Ancient Egypt's Government In the beginning Egypt had a monarchy based government. The pharaoh was the head of state and the representative of the gods on earth. The government brought order to society through the construction of temples, the creation of laws, taxation, the organization of trade with neighbors, and the defense of the country's interests. The pharaoh was assisted by a hierarchy of advisors, priests, officials and administrators, who were responsible for the affairs of the state and the welfare of the people.
Ancient Egypt could not have achieved such a great state without the co-operation of all levels of the population. The pharaoh was at the top of the social hierarchy. Next to him, the most powerful officers were the viziers, the executive heads of the bureaucracy. Under them were the high priests, followed by royal administrators who ensured that the 42 district governors carried out the pharaoh's orders. At the bottom of the hierarchy were the scribes, artisans, farmers and laborers.
Throughout the ancient governments days there were many pharaohs. In fact, according to the Mysteries of Egypt Website, the Pharaohs began ruling Egypt in 3000 B.C. when upper and lower Egypt were united. During the Old Kingdom, they considered themselves to be living gods who ruled with absolute power. They built pyramids in their greatness but left no official records of their achievements. During the Middle Kingdom, the pharaohs no longer considered themselves to be living gods, but instead the representatives of the gods on earth.
To show their image as powerful rulers, the pharaohs represented themselves in writings and sculptured pictures on temple walls. They often showed themselves as warriors killing all of the enemies.
Not all of the Pharaohs were men nor were they Egyptians. Scarlett Harris, a student at Winship School, says that the first woman to become a pharaoh was Queen Hatshepsut, who was one of the only three women to become a...
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