people saw power structures in a linear way.
In France there were three estates Nobility, Clergy, and Peasants. First estate was clergy, second estate was nobility, third estate peasants.
Nobility were 3% of the population- Emphasis on Birth, Philosophy on Manual Labor (below them), Seigneurial Rights had separate courts and priveleges. Louis XIV was regarded as the sun king and ruled based upon divine right.
Couldn’t stop the escalating tensions that began with the French Revolution.
Great Britain became a constitutional monarchy and Great Britian also had Parlement. Parlement were filled with nobles who wanted their interests heard and around 1770 they began questioning his divine right ruling and thus dismissed parlement. Lead to a declining view of the French monarchy.
Divisions within Clergy
Growing Resentment toward Clergy were taking advantage of their power to tax their members.
Third Estate had to pay rent to landlords and clergymen. Paying two different people and were heavily taxed. Peasants were tied to the land still.
The Enlightenment and the Scientific revolution lead to the idea of natural law and which intellectuals applied to humans. Birth of the Social sciences and things that remain true despite the situation.
Free access of knowledge would progress humanity.
New middle class that built its wealth on working and not inheritance and on the backs of the middle class.
Frederick the Great of Prussia
Louis XVI- reflected and era when he wanted to be popular and public opinion was becoming more relevant to the time as higher circulation of print material was changing the political and social environment at the time.
Political cartoons of the time took advantage of Louis weight and mocking the queen.