WEEK 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
1. Anatomy is the study of the structure and shape of body and parts, while physiology is the study of how the body work and function, their relationship is seen for example in the heart, there are two valves (anatomy) and these two valves help the heart pump blood.
2. The atom is the smallest particle of an element. An example is carbon ( C ) which is the building block of life. A group of atoms could form for example, a water molecule (H2O ) which is two or more atoms joined together and these molecules if larger in size becomes macromolecules which are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and are also known as nutrients which are parts of the organelles such as a nucleus which are parts of cells with specific functions and they make up the cell and helps perform functions such as destroying harmful substances such as white blood cells. Other types of cells join together to form tissues, which perform a function such as epithelia for a larger organ such as skin. Another example is the nervous tissue for the brain. Organs make up organ systems such as the cardiovascular system for the heart, and an organ system is a group of organs which work collectively to carry out a process in the organism, which are made up of many organ systems which may be part of a larger population (such of as humans).
3. The eleven organ systems include the cardiovascular system, the digestive system, the endocrine system, the immune system, the integumentary system, lymphatic system, the musculoskeletal system, the nervous system, the respiratory system, the reproductive system, and the urinary system. The integumentary system is the largest system by mass, it forms the external body covering, protects deeper tissue and produces Vitamin D, as well as serves as the location of cutaneous nerve receptors. Its parts include skin. The skeletal system protects and supports body organs, provides muscle attachment for movement, is the site of blood cell formation and stores minerals. It is made up of cartilage, joints and bones. The primary function of the muscular system, made up of skeletal muscles, is that it allows for movement and posture as well as produces heat. The nervous system is a control system which responds to internal/external changes by activating muscles and lands, made up of the brain, sensory receptor, spinal cord and nerves. The endocrine system secrets regulatory hormones for growth, reproduction and metabolism. It is made up the pinal glad, the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the thymus gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, testes (male) and ovary (female) The cardiovascular system transports materials via blood, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and wastes. This includes the heart and blood vessels. The lymphatic gland returns fluids to blood vessels and disposes of debris, and is involved in the immune system. This includes the thoracic duet, the lymph nodes, and the lymphatic vessels. The respiratory system keeps the blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. This system is made up of the nasal cavity, the pharynx, the larynx, the trachea, the bronchus and the left lung. The digestive system breaks down food and allows for nutrient absorption into blood, made up of the oral cavity, the esophagus, the stomach, small and large intestines, rectum and anus. The urinary system eliminates wastes and maintains acid-base balance as well as regulates water and electrolytes. This is made up of the kidney, the ureter, the urinary bladder and the urethra. Finally the reproductive system allows for the production of offspring and in the males it includes the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, the vas deferens, the testis, scrotum and penis. For females this includes the mammary glands, the uterine tube, the uterus and the vagina.
4. The six life processes that distinguish living from non-living organisms include digestion, growth, metabolism...
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