Anatomy and Physiology notes

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B
IOLOGY
20
5
0
L
ECTURE
N
OTES

A
NA
TOMY
&
P
HYSIOLOGY
I
(A.
I
MHOLTZ
)

I
NTRO TO
H
UMAN
A&P

P
1
OF
2
This course is a study of “Human Anatomy and Physiology.”
Humans
can be classified as:
-
Animals
(we are multicellular, motile organisms that lack cell walls)
-
Vertebrates
(we have backbones)
-
Mammals
(we have hair, mammary glands,
3 bones in each ear) -
Primates
(we have opposable thumbs, 2 clavicles, forward facing eyes)
-
Hominids
(we are bipedal and have a large brain size to body size ratio).
Anatomy
is the study of animal structure.
The word comes from the Greek ana - which means “up” and temnein which means “to cut.”
The
l iteral meaning makes sense since knowledge of an animal’s internal structure can be gained from dissection.
Physiology
is the study of a nimal function.
It comes from the Greek physio - which means “form” or “natural ord er” and logos which means “thought” or “discourse.”
H
uman anatomy and physiology is the study of the form and function of the human animal.
A&P is a subset of biology which is the study of living organisms
(Greek
bios

“life”).
There are a variety of types of anatomical study including:
Gross anatomy

the study of structures visible to the naked eye.
Histology
– the study of tissues (Gr
.
histos

“tissue”) with the aid of a microscope
Cytology
– the study of cellular structure and function
(Greek
kytos

“container”)
.
Pathology

the study and diagnosis of disease (Gr
.
pathos

“suffering”).
Human beings are organisms (contiguous living systems).
An organism is composed of groups of structures that work together to perform a common task. Such a group is known as an organ system
. There are 11 basic organ systems:
Integumentary System

external covering of the body; the skin .
Skeletal System

body’s internal framework; the bones .
Muscular System

body’s means

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