Anatomy and Physiology

Topics: Abdomen, Anatomy, Anatomical terms of location Pages: 27 (572 words) Published: March 6, 2015
BIO 157
Anatomy & Physiology I
Instructor: Dr. Philip Wahr
pwahr@monroeccc.edu
Office: L117

Levels of Organization
Chemical

Increasing complexity

Cellular
Tissue
Organ
Organ System
Organism
Population
Ecosystem

Definitions
Anatomy: Structure
How do structures relate to each other?
-Surface anatomy
-Regional anatomy
-Systemic anatomy
-Comparative anatomy
-Developmental anatomy/embryology
-Microscopic anatomy
-cytology
-histology

Definitions
Physiology: Function
-Cell physiology
-Organ physiology
-Systemic physiology
-Pathology

Homeostasis: The tendency to maintain constant, favorable
internal conditions

Homeostasis
The tendency of the body to maintain favorable internal
body conditions within a narrow range despite changes
in the internal or external environment.
Is a dynamic process to detect and correct changes in the
body
The set point is the ‘normal’ value of a controlled variable. Utilizes feedback mechanisms to keep the controlled variable near the set point
Many different homeostatic mechanisms take place
simultaneously

Homeostasis
Feedback loops

Controlled condition

Effector

Sensor
(receptor)

Control center

Feedback loops
Negative feedback: changes in a variable lead to changes
that oppose the initial change
Most common type of feedback
Prevents uncontrolled or exploding changes
from the set point
Self-limiting

Example of negative feedback

Feedback loops
Positive feedback: changes in a variable lead to changes that increase the initial change
Leads to large, ‘explosive’ changes in the variable
Much less common
Require an external mechanism to stop
Examples: childbirth
blood clotting

Organ Systems
Integumentary
-skin
-protection

Muscular
-skeletal muscles
-movement

(see fig. 1-1)
Skeletal
-bones
-support

Nervous
-CNS
-PNS
-communication

Organ Systems
Endocrine
-glands
-hormones

Lymphatic
-lymphatics
-fluid drainage
-immunity

Cardiovascular
-heart and blood vessels
-circulation

Respiratory
-lungs
-airways
-gas exchange

Organ Systems
Digestive
-GI tract
-digestion
-absorption

Urinary
-kidneys
-water balance
-electrolyte balance

Reproductive
-gonads (ovaries, testes)
-gamete production

Anatomical Position
-Standing upright
-Face front
-Upper limbs at sides
-Palms facing front
-Lower limbs parallel
-Feet parallel, slightly apart

Planes of the body
Sagittal plane
divides right from left
Median plane
divides into equal right
and left portions
(also known as mid-sagittal)

Planes of the body
Frontal or Coronal plane
divides front from back

Planes of the body

Transverse or Axial plane
divides top from bottom

Oblique plane
not one of the preceding planes

Regions of the Body
Axial Region
Head and Neck
Thorax
Abdomen
Pelvis
Appendicular Region
Upper limb
(arm, forearm, hand)
Lower limb
(thigh, leg, foot)

Regions of the Body
axillary
Arm (brachial)
antecubital
Forearm (antebrachial)
olecranal
carpal
palmar

Hand (manual)
dorsal

Regions of the Body
gluteal
Thigh
(femoral)

patellar
Leg
Foot
(pedal)

crural
dorsal
plantar

popliteal

sural
tarsal

Regions of the Body
frontal
occipital (back of head)

nasal

orbital
oral

buccal

cervical

mental

Body Cavities
Dorsal (Posterior) Cavity
-protects the central nervous system
-subdivided into:
-cranial cavity: surrounds brain
-vertebral cavity: contains spinal cord

Ventral (Anterior) Cavity
-contains the viscera
-subdivided into:
-thoracic cavity
-abdominal cavity
-pelvic cavity

Abdominopelvic Quadrants

Right Upper
Quadrant

Left Upper
Quadrant

Right Lower
Quadrant

Left Lower
Quadrant

Abdominopelvic Regions

Umbilical
Epigastric

Right
Hypochondriac

Left
Hypochondriac

Right Lumbar

Left Lumbar

Right Iliac
(Inguinal)

Left Iliac
(Inguinal)

Hypogastric...
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