ANATOMY CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM TEST REVIEW
1. Which wall of the heart is thickest and why?
The myocardium (cardiac muscle), is the thickest section of the heart wall and contains cardiomyocytes, the contractile cell of the heart.
2. What part of the heart is the pacemaker and why?
The SA Node is located in the right atrium of the heart. It is made up of a group of cells (myocytes) positioned on the wall of the right atrium, at the center of the heart and near the entrance of the superior vena cava. The sinoatrial node coordinates beating of all four chambers of the heart. It stands to reason that this coordination would begin in the first chamber involved and travel to the rest in sequence. 3. Where is the SA node located?
Wall of right atrium, near entrance of the superior vena cava. 4. List the blood types, their antigens and antibodies.
BT O: antigens none, antibodies A and B
BT A: antigen A, antibody B
BT B: antigen B, antibody A
BT AB: antigen AB, antibodies none
5. Define systolic and diastolic. (ventricular diastole, atrial systole etc.) Ventricular diastole is the period during which the ventricles are relaxing, while atrial diastole is the period during which the atria are relaxing. Atrial systole represents the contraction of myocardium of the left and right atria. Atrial systole occurs late in ventricular diastole. One force driving blood from the atria to the ventricles is the decrease in ventricular pressure that occurs during ventricular diastole. Ventricular systole is contraction of ventricles.
6. When taking blood pressure which of the two is the top number and which is the bottom number? A person's blood pressure is usually expressed in terms of the systolic pressure over diastolic pressure and is measured in millimetres of mercury (mm Hg), for example 120/80. 7. List the path of blood through the heart. Which side is oxygenated and deoxygenated? Pathway of blood through the heart
1. Blood enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior venae cavae, and the coronary sinus.
2. From right atrium, it goes through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. 3. From the right ventricle, it goes through the pulmonary semilunar valves to the pulmonary trunk
4. From the pulmonary trunk it moves into the right and left pulmonary arteries to the lungs.
5. From the lungs, oxygenated blood is returned to the heart through the pulmonary veins.
6. From the pulmonary veins, blood flows into the left atrium. 7. From the left atrium, blood flows through the bicuspid (mitral) valve into the left ventricle.
8. From the left ventricle, it goes through the aortic semilunar valves into the ascending aorta.
9. Blood is distributed to the rest of the body (systemic circulation) from the aorta.
8. Explain what is happening when the A/V valves are closing? When the semi lunar valves are closing? What sounds do they make? The first heart sound or "lub" results from closure of the tricuspid and mitral valves. It is a rather low-pitched and a relatively long sound which, as indicated in, represents the beginning of ventricular systole. The second heart sound, or "dub," marks the beginning of ventricular diastole. It is produced by closure of the aortic and pulmonary (pulmonic) semilunar vanes when the intraventricular pressure begins to fall. This "dub" sound is typically heard as a sharp snap because the semilunar valves tend to close much more rapidly than the AV valves. Because diastole occupies more time than systole, a brief pause occurs after the second heart sound when the heart is beating at a normal rate. Therefore, the pattern that one hears is one of: "lub-dub" pause, "lub-dub" pause, and so on.
9. What is the term for the lack of oxygen to the body?
10. What is the lumen according to the arteries and veins?
11. What are the upper chambers of the heart called? Lower?
12. What is the structure for the layers of the heart...
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