anatomy

Topics: Olfaction, Sensory system, Eye Pages: 5 (1296 words) Published: February 5, 2014
Anatomy 1 Lab FINAL EXAM
** Covers exercises 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22,
23, 24, 25, 26, 27**

Terms – Intro to Sensory Receptors (Lab 24)
General senses – touch, pressure, changes in temperature, pain, blood pressure and stretching Special senses – taste, smell, sight, hearing, balance
Punctate distribution – uneven distribution of sense receptors Stimuli are classified by type (modalities) such as light, heat, sound, pressure and specific chemicals Receptors – receiving units in the body that respond to an adequate stimulus Photoreceptors – detect light

Thermoreceptors – detect changes in temperature
Proprioreceptors – detect changes in the position of the body and in tension Pain receptors (nociceptors) – naked nerve endings throughout much of body Mechanoreceptors – receptive to mechanical stimuli (touch receptors or receptors in ear that respond to sound or motion) Baroreceptors – respond to changes in blood pressure

Chemoreceptors – respond to changes in chemical environment Tests – Intro to Sensory Receptors (Lab 24)
Mapping Fine-Touch Receptors – Meissner’s corpuscle and Merkel discs (use a hair to detect when partner can sense it) Two-Point Discrimination Test – number of fine touch receptors per unit area in the skin – map the relative density of the receptors in the skin – determine minimum distance that your lab partner is able to recognize as two points Mapping Temperature Receptors – determine relative number of receptors that are sensitive to warm/cool Adaption to Touch – length of time it takes for receptors to adapt to stimulus

Tonic receptors – continuously perceive stimulus
Phasic receptors – perceive the stimulus initially and then adapt Locating Stimulus with Proprioception – touch lab partner with marker and see if they can mark same spot with a different color marker OR close eyes and try to touch corner of eye with finger Temperature Judgment – examine adaption of thermoreceptors to temperature and the ability to determine temperature by

Absolute value or relative value
Three bowls with different temperature of water
Referred Pain – perception of pain in one area of the body when the pain is somewhere else – elbow in ice Terms – Taste and Smell (Lab 25)
Chemoreception – taste and smell – specific chemical compounds are detected by the sense organs and interpreted by various regions of the brain Supporting cells and taste cells – what taste buds consist of – specialized epithelial cells with hairs that project into the taste pores near the surface of the tongue Gustation – sense of taste

Olfactory cells – specialized neurons
Tests – Taste and Smell (Lab 25)
Examination of Taste Buds –taste buds are on sides of papillae on the tongue – appear lighter than surrounding tissue Transmission of Sense of Gustation to the Brain – picked up by receptors in taste buds primarily in tongue with some on soft palate and pharynx Taste Determination of Solid Materials – gustatory receptors stimulated by specific chemicals and fluid runs down sides of tongue papillae where hair cells of the receptors are located - partner puts either sugar or salt crystals on blotted tongue Mapping the Tongue for Taste Receptors – determine if receptors for taste are distributed evenly over the tongue or are located in specialized areas – use q-tip to put the five primary tastes (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami) on partners tongue Transmission of Sense of Olfaction to Brain – olfactory cells – olfactory nerve – olfactory bulb Olfactory Reflex – put ammonia under partners nose and see if there is visible posterior movement of head Visual Cues in Smell Interpretation – determine whether the color of a substance has any effect on what you perceive smell to be – almond and wild cherry labeled vial Olfactory Discrimination – four vials of different scents – keep eye close and try to determine which scent each vial is Adaption to Smell – adaption to smell by the olfactory receptors occurs very...
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