Access to HE (Science)
Unit: Human Anatomy and Physiology
Unit Code: RH1/3/ER/002
This brief is in two parts:
See Part 2 for Criteria and Grade Descriptors
Task 1 Level 2/3: Criteria: 3.1
1. Observe the diagram below of the human skeleton and answer the following questions
a. Label the bones indicated by lines on the diagram.
b. Use a coloured pen/pencil to indicate the axial and appendicular regions of the skeleton. [pic]
c. Explain the overall structure and functions of the following main regions of the human skeleton: axial (cranium, ribcage and vertebrae) and appendicular (girdles and limbs). You should use the names of few bones given below in these regions when explaining their functions on the skeleton.
Axial skeleton (Focus on cranium, ribcage and vertebrae) [Max 300 words]
The axial skeleton is divided into the skull, sternum, ribcage and the vertebrae. The skull is made up of 22 bones and these are divided into the bones that form the cranium and facial bones.
The cranium bones mainly protect and house the brain and are made up of eight bones, the frontal bones, two parietal bones, two temporal bones, occipital bones, ethmoid bones and the sphenoid bones. The skull has its features associated with functions; for example the cavities for housing sinuses and cavities for housing hearing and equilibrium.
The facial bones (14bones) are divided into two zygomatic bones, two palatine bones, two nasal bones, two lacrimal bones, two nasal conchae, one vomer, inferior and one mandible. The facial bones help in housing and protecting the organs associated with sight, olfactory, digestion and respiratory. They also form the frame work of the face.
The vertebrae (spine/back bone) is the axial (central point) where most of the skeletal organs are attached. It is about 71cm long on average and is divided into four main regions. Cervical with 7 vertebrae, thoracic with 12 vertebrae, lumber with 5 vertebrae and sacrum region and coccyx are fused together.
The vertebral column works as a strong, flexible rod that can move forward, backward, sideways and rotate. It encloses and protects the spinal cord, supports the head and serves as a point of attachment for the ribs, pelvic girdle and muscle of the back.
The thoracic cage is the bone structure made of sternum, coastal cartilage, 7 true and 5 false ribs and thoracic vertebrae that run posterior to the sternum. It houses and protects the delicate thoracic organs heart and the lungs, and also protects the organs housed on the superior part of the abdominally cavity.
Appendicular skeleton (Focus on pelvic and pectoral girdles, lower and upper limbs) [Max 300 words]
The pectoral girdle articulates the upper limbs to the vertebrae column through a complex of muscles posteriorly (back) and also joins the upper limbs to the sternum anteriorly (front). The pectoral girdle is made up of the clavicle and the scapula. There are two of them in the human being. The clavicle joins the upper limb to the sternum at the sternoclavicular joint to the scapula at the acromioclavicular joint. The major function of the pectoral girdle is to articulate the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton.
The upper limbs connect to the girdles of the glenohumeral joint. The upper limb is made up of the humerus, which is joined to the scapula glenohumeral joint superiorly and to the ulna and radius at the elbow. The main function of the upper limbs is to provide movement and dexterity.
The pelvic girdle acts as a point of attachment for lower limbs and protects the reproductive organs and the bladder. It consists of two hip bones (coxal bones) which unite anteriorly at a joint called the pubic symphysis....
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