February 5, 2012
PSY 240/ The Brain, the Body and the Mind
Analyzing Psychological Disorders
University of Phoenix
Thank you for considering me for the psychologist position with your organization. I enjoyed meeting with you today. I understand as a psychologist, I am expected to recognize all disorders in order to assist people that are suffering. The first part of my paper will discuss schizophrenia disorders. I will briefly explain what areas of the brain are affected, causal factors, associated symptoms and what appropriate drug therapies are available. The second part of this paper, I will discuss the two case studies that deal with Anorexia and Drug Abuse. I will consider what types of relation they have to the nature vs. nurture issue. I will briefly explain any drug interventions that would be helpful and what the effects of those drug interventions could be. PART A
Schizophrenia is a mental illness that has multiple effects on the individual who suffers from this debilitating mental illness. This illness affects approximately 1% of the U.S. population. Schizophrenia affects three areas of the brain. The three main structures of the brain that are affected by schizophrenia are the forebrain, hindbrain and the limbic system. When looking into the forebrain to see what is happening in a schizophrenic, it is seen that the forebrain is the largest portion of the brain and includes the cerebral hemispheres that are divided into four lobes, it also contains the limbic system, the thalamus, hypothalamus and corpus callosum. The forebrain controls cognition, motor and sensory functions, reproduction, temperature regulation, emotional expression, hunger and sleep cycles. “It is within the frontal lobe where skewed thought organization occurs, creating the delusional ideations that are a common positive symptom of schizophrenia. It is also in this lobe that overstimulation of dopamine impacts decreased glutamate and neural activity. The temporal lobe regulates hearing and object and facial recognition. When schizophrenia is present the temporal lobe process is skewed, and a result is auditory and visual hallucinations” (Livestrong.com) Looking into the hindbrain to see what happens in an individual with schizophrenia, it is seen that the hindbrain contains the cerebellum, medulla and pons. These serve to control blood circulation, balance, motor activity and posture. It is the undermost portion of the brain. When schizophrenia is present in these portions of the brain, it results in negative symptoms such as inappropriate body language, and blunt movements. These can be seen in schizophrenics as aimless motor activity, rigid posture, and decreased reactions to stimuli. The limbic system is also affected in a schizophrenic. The limbic system is the innermost part of the brain and contains the amygdala and hippocampus. These systems are what regulate memories, learning, emotions and sexual behavior. In the brain of a patient with schizophrenia, the disease causes flattening that is considered to be a negative symptom as well as prevents normal social contact, disorganization, and a fascination with inappropriate sexual content. Scientists are always looking for casual factors of schizophrenia. A reason for an illness, mental illnesses are included and schizophrenia is being researched for causes almost if not every day. It is said that the sufferers’ genes or an environmental factor that plays into why individuals may have schizophrenia. In most cases they inherit genes from both parents. Scientists believe several genes are associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, but that no gene causes the disease by itself. In fact, recent research has found that people with schizophrenia tend to have higher rates of rare genetic mutations. These genetic differences involve hundreds of different genes and probably disrupt brain...
References: Wlding, A. (2011). Areas of the Brain Affected by Schizophrenia. Livestrong. Retrieved on July 26, 2011 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/88264-areas-brain-affected-schizophrenia/
National Institute of Mental Health
Ehow. (1999-2011). What is the neural basis of schizophrenia. Retrieved on July 28, 2011 from http://www.ehow.com/about_6539878_neural-basis-schizophrenia_.html
Harrison PhD, C
Arnaiz, Mabel Gracia. "Learning to eat: establishing dietetic normality in the treatment of eating disorders." Food, Culture & Society 12.2 (2009): 191+. General OneFile. Web. 13 June 2010.
Hirst, J. (1998). Biological Causes of Anorexia Nervosa. Retrieved from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro98/202s98-paper3/Hirst3.html.
Karagianis, Jamie, and Angela Hill. "Schizophrenia in a worldwide perspective: explaining similarities and differences." Future Neurology 5.3 (2010): 345+. Academic OneFile. Web. 13 June 2010
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