analyze a solution of potassium hydroxide using standard hydrochloric acid

Topics: Hydrogen, Redox, Iron Pages: 6 (906 words) Published: February 26, 2014
Title: Redox Reaction

Some of the most important chemical reactions are Redox reactions. They are also known as oxidation-reduction reactions. This reaction passes one or more electrons from one species to another. The species that loses electrons are being oxidized while the species that gains electrons are reduced. The reaction occurs simultaneously. Numbers are given to each element in a chemical reaction to help us find out which element is oxidized and which is reduced. According to the Error: Reference source not foundduring a reaction, the oxidation number of an element increases that it becomes more positive thus the element is being oxidized. On the other hand, if the oxidation number of an element decreases, it means the element is being reduced. The changes in numbers are also used to balance the redox equations. The objective is to maintain the total number of electrons lost in the oxidation equivalent to the total number gained in the reduction. In the study of oxidation and reduction reactions, one should begin by learning about oxidation numbers. In order to understand redox reaction, we must first understand the difference between oxidation and reduction, and then figure out what is being oxidized and what is being reduced.

Oxidation occurs by:
-The loss of electrons
-The gaining of oxygen,
-The loss of hydrogen
-An increase in the oxidation state

Reduction occurs by:
-The gaining of electrons
-The loss of oxygen
-The gaining of hydrogen
-A decrease in the oxidation state

To find the redox reactions between a metal and dilute acid, metal-metal ion displacement and halogen displacement reaction.

Test tubes (8), pea size samples of the following metals; copper, lead, magnesium and zinc (10 ml), 2M hydrochloric acid in labeled test tube, 0.10M solutions of the following salt solutions: copper nitrate, lead (ii) nitrate, magnesium nitrate and zinc nitrate, the following 0.50M halide solution: KBr, KCl and KI, 5 ml of each of the following solutions: Cl2, Br2 and I2, hexane (10 ml) and wooden splinter.

First we start with the metal - acid reaction:

Step 1 - we place a piece of copper metal into a test tube. Step 2 - then add 2.0 ml of dilute HCl acid into a test tube. Step 3 - we then observe and test the gas evolved with a lighted splinter

Step 4 - we repeat step 1 to 3 with the other metals.

On to our next objective it’s the metal - metal ion reaction; Step1 - first we place a zinc strip into 3 different test tubes. Step2 - we add 0.1M magnesium nitrate solution into the first test tube, 0.1M lead (ii) nitrate solution into the second test tube and 0.1M copper (ii) nitrate solution into the third test tube. Step3 - we then record all our observations.

Step4 - we repeat step 1 to 3 for the other metals.

On to our third and final reaction it's the halogen displacement reaction: Step 1 - add a 2.0 ml KBr in a test tube, then add a 2.0ml of chlorine water.

Step 2 - then stir and observe to see any change in color. Step 3 - then add a 1.0ml of hexane to the same test tube and stir. Step 4 - allow the hexane to settle down (note the color of the layer). Step 5 - record the color of the hexane layer.

Step 6 - repeat step 1 to 5, for the following reactions: (Cl2 + KI), (Br2 + KCl), (Br2 + Kl), (I2 + KCl), (I2 + KBr)

Metal - acid reaction

Metal used
Reaction with dilute HCl(aq)


No reaction

Blows the lighted splinter out and smoke is...
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