International Journal of Undergraduate Studies, 1(1), 8-14, 2012
ANALYSIS OF THE PURCHASING BEHAVIOUR ON SKIN CARE PRODUCTS AMONG THE YOUNGER GENERATION Fong Shieng Yee and Susan Chin Tee Suan Multimedia University, Malaysia
The purpose of this study is to analyse the purchasing behaviour of the younger generation on skin care products. A total of 200 respondents took part in this survey. From the analysis, it was found that Environmental Concerns was ranked the highest among the six variables chosen for the study. The other remaining variables are price, packaging, promotion, branding and self Image. Keywords: Skin care products, consumer behaviour, purchasing behaviour, image, marketing, life style INTRODUCTION Facial skin care product is a personal usage (Rence, 2004). Consumers have many different attribute beliefs toward a product or a service. These bundles of beliefs form one‟s attitude toward that product or service. Marketers need to figure out the buying pattern of external and internal factor which affect customers intention to purchase. It is important to comprehend the buying habit of consumer due to changing technology and uncertain future perception and caused the buying pattern of consumer become fickle with every generation (Rence, 2004). Up till now, facial skin care has played a hand in Malaysia market. Malaysia‟s consumer lifestyle has been changing due in part to give a rising in affluence and education levels. In order to shape the consumer buying behaviour, the high profile international retailers and the global mass media have also take a role on it. Malaysians are becoming more westernized, sophisticated and cosmopolitan. Sales of skin care products are designed to moisturize, cleans, tone, and otherwise maintain the skin. Eight products are included in this category as depicted in Figure I. Figure I: Sales of skin care product 2002
Source: http://www.greyhouse.com/pdf/rcos_pgs.pdf The potential of youth market has gain an insight of the marketers in today‟s‟ market. Consumers are now more aware of what they are wearing on their bodies, and they are willing to pay for products which enhance appearances and keep them looking young and fit (Nair 2007). 20 year olds now use anti-aging products (Mouthong et. al. 2008). Consumers do really care about the type of product applied on their face or skin to beautify themselves. In the craze of skin care industry, marketers need to be alert with any opportunity to buzz the market. Marketers have long coveted the youth market for its buying power, 8
International Journal of Undergraduate Studies, 1(1), 8-14, 2012 influence on family spending, and willingness to try new products and brands. This show the younger generation are a force to be reckoned with. Hence the purpose of the study is to analyse the purchasing behaviour of skin care products among the younger generation. REVIEW OF LITERATURE The skin care in Asia has growing rapidly in recent years. The main aim of any cosmetic product is, to modify the appearance and/or correct body odour, and/or protect or keep the different outer surfaces of the human body in good condition (Cuadrado 2007). Six out of ten Hong Kong people have a low self-esteem on their facial skin qualities (MVA Hong Kong Limited, 2010). People are starting at a younger age and spending more on facial skin care products and facial treatment services. In Thailand, whitening skin care lotion has been very popular in Thailand for the past few years. In 2003, it commanded 60 percent of the total skin care product market. The leading brand in this sub-sector includes Nivea, Ponds, and Oil of Olay. Skin repair lotion and cream commanded approximately 20 percent (Estee Lauder, Clinique, Lancome, Eucedrin, Oil of Olay); facial oil reduction lotion and cream commanded 5 percent (Johnson and Johnson, Ponds, Oil of Olay), and general skin care and moisturizer commanded 15 percent such as Johnson and Johnson, Baby Mild,...
References: Alston, K. and Prince Roberts, J. (1999), “Partners in new product development: SC Johnson and the alliance for environmental innovation”, Corporate Environmental Strategy, 6(2), pp.110-28. Aqueveque, C. (2006). Extrinsic cues and perceived risk: the influence of consumption situation. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 2(4), pp. 237–247 Batra, S. K. and Kazmi, S.H.H. (2004), „Consumer Behaviour- Text and Cases‟, New Delhi: Excel Books Berger, I. E. and Mitchell, A. A. (1989) The effect of advertising on attitude accessibility, attitude confidence, and the attitude-behavior relationship. Journal Consumer Research, 16 (3), pp.269-279. Bobinski, G.S., Cox, D. and Cox, A. (1996), "Retail „sales‟ advertising, perceived retailer credibility and price rationale", Journal of Retailing, 27(3), pp.291-306 Bocock, R. (1993) Consumption, Routledge, London. Bolton, L., Warlop, E.L. and Alba, J.W. (2003). Consumer Perceptions of Price (Un)Fairness. Journal of Consumer Research, 29, 474491. Brown, M. (1996) Environmental policy in the hotel sector: „„green‟‟ strategy or stratagem. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 8(3), 18–23.
International Journal of Undergraduate Studies, 1(1), 8-14, 2012 Chan, W.W. and Lam, J.C. (2002) Prediction of pollutant emission through electricity consumption by the hotel industry in Hong Kong. International Journal of Hospitality Management 21, 381–391. Cuadrado, P. (2007). General Skin-Care Products. Cited in Analysis of Cosmetic Products. Amparo S and Alberto, C. Elsevier Science Ltd. Deighton, J. (1992), The consumption of performance. Journal of Consumer Research, 19(12), 362-72 Delgado-Ballester, E. and Munuera-Aleman, J.L. (2005) Does brand trust matter to brand equity? Journal of Product and Brand Management. 14(3) 187-196 Dickson, P.R. and Sawyer, A. (1990). The price knowledge and search of supermarket shoppers. Journal of Marketing, 54(July), 42-53 Duncan, T. (2005). Principle of Advertising and IMC (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Engel, J.F., Blackwell, R.D. and Miniard,P.W. (1995), Consumer Behavior, (8th Ed.), Dryden, Orlando, FL. Featherstone, M. (1993) Consumer culture and postmodernism. London:Sage Firat, F.A. (1993) Gender and consumption: Transcending the feminine? In Costa J (ed) Gender Issues and Consumer Behavior, Sage London pp.106-126 Ghodeswar B.M. (2008), “Building Brand Identity in Competitive Markets: A Conceptual Model”, Journal of Product and Brand Management, 17(1), pp.4-12. Hawkins, D.I., Best, R.J. and Coney, K.A. (1998), Consumer Behavior: Building Market Strategy, McGrawHill, Boston, MA, . Household and Personal Products Industry(2007), Article: Women can be fickle regarding brand loyalty: women love cosmetics but brand loyalty is low: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-168872031.html Irons, D. (2001) Insider Beauty New York: International Image Press Kalafatis, S.P., Pollard, M., East, R. and Tsogas, M.H. (1999) Green marketing and Ajzen‟s theory of planned behavior: a cross-market examination. Journal of Consumer Marketing 16 (5), pp.441–460. Kellner, D. (1992) “Popular culture and the construction of postmodern identities”, in S Lash and J Friedman (eds).. Modernity and Identity, Blackwell. Oxford, 141-177 Kim, B. H. (1998). Knowledge, behavior, and related factors of skin care of women. Doctoral dissertation, Kyung San University, Kyungsan Kim, S. R. (2001). A study on the usage status of the cosmetics in adult female. Unpublished Master thesis, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, South Korea Kollat, D.T. and Willett, R. (1969) Is impulse purchasing really a useful concept for marketing decisions? Journal of Marketing, 33, pp.79-83 Kotler, P. and Keller, K. L. (2006). Marketing Management. 12th Edition. Pearson/Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA. Laroche, M., Bergeron, J. and Barbaro-Forleo, G. (2001) Targeting consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products. Journal of Consumer Marketing 18 (6), pp.503–520 Lee, H. K. (1993). An empirical study on the life-style and its effect on the marketing strategy - with special regards to buying behavior of cosmetics for students in Seoul area. Unpublished Master thesis, Dongduck Women 's University, Seoul, South Korea Lee, H. J. (1998). A study on the female university students ' lifestyle patterns -Focused on the cosmetics buying behavior. Unpublished Master thesis, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, South Korea McCarthy, E. J. and JR Perreault,W. D. (1993). Basic Marketing. Boston: Irwin McGuinness D., Brennan, M. and Gendall, P. (1995) “ The Effect Of Product Sampling and couponing on purchase behaviour: some empirical evidence”, International Journal of Advertising: 4(5), pp.219-230 Mort, F. (1988) “Boy‟s Own? Masculinity, style and popular culture.” In R. Chapman and J. Rutherford (eds) Male Order: Unwrapping masculinity, Lawrence and Wishart, London 1988 pp 193-224. Mouthong, S., Pamittasil, S. and Ungtaworndee, C., (2008). Purchase of cosmetic products : A study of factors influencing Naresuan University graduate students purchase bahaviour . Unpublished MBA Dissertation MVA Hong Kong Ltd (2010). Hong Kong people are generally dissatisfied with their facial qualities: http://www.mva.com.hk/downloads/pr_mva_facial_skin_quality_eng_18Jan2010.pdf. Nair, D. V., and R, D. P. (2007). A Study on Purchase Pattern of Cosmetics among Consumers in Kerala. International Marketing Conference on Marketing and Society. Peiss, K. (1993) Hope in a Jar: The making of America 's beauty culture 13
International Journal of Undergraduate Studies, 1(1), 8-14, 2012 Peattie, K and Peattie, S. (1994) “Sales Promotion” in Baker, M.J. (Ed). The Marketing Book 3 rd Edition, Butterworth, Heinemann, London. Peter, P.J and Donnelly, J.H. (2007) Marketing Management: Knowledge and Skills (8th Ed.). New York: McGraw- Hill Rence, E. (2006). “What Drives Consumer Behavior?”. http://www.uwex.edu/ces/cced/downtowns/ltb/lets/LTB0406.pdf Rotfeld, H.J. (1999), "Social marketing and myths of appeals to fear", Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 16 No.2, pp.119-21 Schaefer, R. (2007). Men‟s Personal Care [Marketing]: http://sbdcnet.org/Snapshots/PersonalCare81506.pdf. Accessed on August 14, 2010 Schouten, J. (1991) Selves in transition-symbolic consumption in personal rites of passage and identity reconstruction. Journal of Consumer Research, 17, pp.412-425 Seabrook, J. (1999), Nobrow culture, The New Yorker, 20 September, pp. 104-11. Seno, D. and Lukas, B.A. (2007). The equity effect of product endorsement by celebrities: A conceptual framework from a co-branding perspective. European Journal of Marketing; 41(3), pp.54-66 Stanton, W.E.J., Etzel, M.J. and Walker, B.J. (1991), Fundamentals of Marketing, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. Thomson, C. and Hirschman, E. (1995) Understanding the socialized body: A post structuralist analysis of consumers‟ self-conceptions, body images and self-care practices. Journal of Consumer Research , 22, pp.139-153. Van Trijp, H. C. M. and Meulenberg, M. T. G. (1996). Marketing and consumer behaviour with respect to foods. In: Food Choice, Acceptance, and Consumption. (Meiselman, H. L. and MacFie, H. J. H., Eds.). Blackie, London, UK. Pp.264–292. Whitney, M.T. (2007) Petroleum-based cosmetics and skin care products found to contain cancer-causing chemical 1,4-dioxane:http://www.naturalnews.com/021717.html Yeung, S.P. (2005), “Teaching approaches in geography and students‟ environmental attitudes”, The Environmentalist, 24(1), pp. 101-17.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document