A large number of authors had put their view and tried to create the most logical and un-confusing consumer decision process model. In this report the author choose three from the many models of consumer decision-making and critically analyze the models. Attempt to gives readers a deeper understanding of each model and be able to apply the right model to the right industry. The author had chosen three models with different level of complexity to create a clear comparison and to demonstrate that every consumer decision making models has a value, it is all depends on how and where a marketer use one particular model. Find that some models are too complicated to be understood and some are too simple and uncomprehending, the author finally proposes a modified consumer decision-making models that the author believed to be all encompassing and relatively easy to understand. The author also believe the report had meet the aim of the author to a satisfactory level.
Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF FIGURES
2. AIM AND OBJECTIVES
4. FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
4.1 AIDA MODEL (HIERARCHY OF EFFECTS)
4.2 KOTLER ET AL.’S 5 STEPS MODEL
4.3 EMB MODEL
PHASES OF HIERARCHY OF EFFECTS DEVELOPMENT
EARLY DEVELOPMENT PHASE
MODERN DEVELOPMENT PHASE
CHALLENGES AND DEFENSES
Table of Figures
Figure 1: Consumer’s Black Box 1 Figure 2: Traditional Model of Think-Feel-Do 3 Figure 3: AIDA Model 11 Figure 4: Kotler et al.’s Model 12 Figure 5: Evaluation of Alternative 14 Figure 6: EMB Model 17 Figure 7: Model Created By The Author 20
What is the different between Customer and Consumer? Oxford dictionary’s definition of customer is “A person or organization that buys goods or services from a store or business”, and consumer is “A person or thing that eats or uses something”. Consumer Behavior as define by Perner (2008) is:
"The study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society." In his study of consumer behavior Kotler et al. (2006) identify the relationship between stimuli create by the marketers and the response posses by the consumer, this is explain by the Consumer’s Black Box Model (Figure 1). The model suggest that there are stimuli control by the marketers and other stimuli that is out of marketers control (PEST-Political, Economic, Technological, and social Cultural), this stimuli enter the costumer’s black box and processed by the characteristic of costumer and through the decision-making process before turn out as responses. The decision of a costumer is highly influenced by four factors (Kotler et al. 2006), which are: Cultural, Social (Pernel 2008), Personal (McNeal 2007) and Psychological (Hellman 2004). Human nature is the most complex subject to be study; there is no definite truth and rules (Underhill, 2000), hence, there is also no definite solution on how and what advertising work (Munoz, 2002). Munoz (2002) is convinced that the hierarchy of effects directs marketers to create a more effective advertising. The...
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