An Introduction To Pragmatics
Linguistic pragmatics is the study of linguistic communication . The writer here presented a general picture of what researchers in the field see to be the " received dicta " . He has borrowed liberally from any and all available sources , usually without attribution . CHAPTER 1 THE DOMAIN OF PRAGMATICS
1. INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS :
Syntactic studying the ways in which signs are combined and the signification of signs . Pragmatics studying the origin , uses , and effects of signs . The difference between them lies in the sector of behavior under consideration . A . Pragmatics is the study of how language is used to communicate . Viewed as : 1 . How the speaker (Sp) can convey more than sentence meaning through an utterance . 2 . The role that context (Cxt) and speaker performance (Perf) play in linguistic communication . 3 . How to assign Sp meaning to the utterance of a sentence . 4 . The domain of investigation is provided by the grammar of the language and discourse analysis ( Discourse Analysis is the study of language use ) . B . Pragmatics doesn't account for use of language to :
1 . Bring of effects on Hr as a result of what has been communicated . 2 . Keep someone awake through the noise of language .
3 . Trick someone into believing you are a Sp of another language by uttering several expressions . 4 . Create emotion , as through poetry .
5 . Use of non-verbal communication (NVC) to augment verbal communication . 2. HUMAN COMMUNICATION :
A . Common sense that is understanding:
1 . An individual , A , decides to inform another individual , B , of something (e.g. A is angry ; A wants B to sit down) . 2 . A engages in a particular behavior to get B recognize the something . 3 . A succeeds in communicating when B recognizes what A wants B . More formally , human communication occurs when
1 . An individual , A , holds certain Internal Representations involving specific states of the world (e.g. A is angry that taxes are due). An Internal Representation (IR) consists of
a .A state of the world (SOW) : a particular description of the world , irrespective of its verifiability , truth , etc . b . An Attitude (ATT) held by A towards this SOW . It may be basic , for example , a desire for SOW , an intention that SOW . 2. A intends to make B aware of a specific subset of A's IRs . 3. A engages in a certain behavior in the presence of B , intending that B recognize that A's behavior a . is intentional .
b . is intended to make B aware that A is attempting to communicate . c . is to serve as the basis for B to determine A's message . Note : There are other cases not viewed as communication :
(1) Sp has IR , makes no action , Hr surmises IR .
(2) Sp has IR , make unintentional action , Hr infers .
Note : Behavior can be analyzed as providing :
1 . Direct evidence : B obtains first-hand experience :
a . Strong : B perceives data which justifies inference for an IR (feels rain→ raining outside) . b . Weak : B perceives data from which to infer IR (hears roommate scream→ conclude dead mouse has been seen) . Note : weak evidence may be strong for something .
2 . Indirect evidence : B to infer via representational medium : Strong : B is presented with symbolic representation which has conventional association with IR (It's raining). Weak : B is presented with symbolic representation of some IR from which B can infer A's intended IR (It's raining→ The drought is over). 4 . Successful communication occurs when B recognizes A's Informative Intention by recognizing A's Communicative Intention . C . Channels for communicative behavior:
1 . Acoustic (speech , vocalizations) .
2 . Visual (gestural , special , temporal) .
3 . Tactile (handshake , touching,…..) .
4 . Olfactory (perfume , cooking odors,…..) .
A . Linguistic communication occurs when :
1 . Individuals A(speaker) and B(hearer) are...
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