Research Proposal Abstract
An Evaluation of Planning and Design Considerations for the Rehabilitation of Flood Affected Settlements in Punjab, Pakistan The Problem Statement
The world is becoming more vulnerable to natural disasters and floods are conceived as most devastating of all natural disasters (Miller, 1997). The average number of flood victims from 1973 to 1997 was 131 million (Koirala, n.d). The 1993 flooding in USA Mississippi was severe enough to cause the residents of three Midwest towns to physically relocate (Changnon, 1996). The 1998 flood in Bangladesh has affected 52 Districts, 30 million people and destroyed more than 900,000 houses (UNHCR, 1998). In 1998, China more than 4,100 people died and more that 18 million people were evacuated from their homes and villages (UNDP, 1999). The rehabilitation measures are different by nation to nation. In China, the rehabilitation is in the form of new planned settlements to improve working and living conditions (The Together Foundation & UNHCR, 2003). Land use planning in China is based on GIS for better selection of sites for relocated flood affected settlements (UNDP, 1999). Offsite rehabilitation is considered because the flood prone areas will be dangerous and had a lasting positive psychological effect on the beneficiaries (Alam, 2008). In Srilanka, rehabilitation measures are similar as china as “effective shelter and settlement planning can reduce damage"(Mufti, 2010). The livelihood for affected community is taken into account (GoS, n.d.). Planning of affected resettlement requires for restoring income based on land or resources; and the need to avoid compromising the social and cultural continuity of affected communities (IFC, 2002). In Bangladesh, most the rehabilitation is on the same site with preparedness measures, basic infrastructure and flood resilient building material (UNHCR, 1998). A study suggests that relocation of community is costly and rarely successful, so it should be minimized (DIFD, 2010). The flood resilient design and material is used for future sustainability in most of the countries. Building designs should incorporate raised foundations and plinth (DEC, 2000; Kent et al., 2004). Houses should be surrounded by water-resistant plants and trees to protect from erosion (ITDG, n.d). Pakistan is one of the most disastrous prone countries in Asia. Since 1900, Pakistan faced 71 floods, 24 earthquakes, 23 local storms/ cyclones, 20 landslide disasters, 15 extreme temperature, 10 epidemics and 1 drought (OCHA, 2011). The history witnessed that floods are most common disasters in Pakistan. Pakistan experienced the worst flood in its history which began in the northern part of Pakistan in 2010. The flood has affected 77 districts out of a total of 102 districts in Pakistan. “Floods cause revenue loss and damage irrigation and drainage channels” (Haider, 2010.). The province of Punjab was also affected at massive scale. Out of 11 affected districts, 7 districts are categorized as the severely affected. According to government statistic, 6 million population affected, 2.4 million people were displaced while, 0.34 million houses were completely destroyed. Infrastructure and agriculture losses run into billions of dollars and million. Almost 642 villages in Rajanpur district and 510 villages in Muzzafargarh district were severely damaged (PDMA Punjab, 2010). For the first time, Provincial Disaster Management Authority Punjab (PDMA) developed temporary strategy to for the rehabilitation of severely affected settlements. The government has no specific strategy for rehabilitation of flood affected settlements (Jamshed, 2011). The strategy was to develop model villages as proper planned settlements with allied facilities. Almost 204 severely affected sites were identified for making model villages in 7 severely affected districts of Punjab. The government department and NGOs work side by side. NGOs were directed to acquire NOC from PDMA to...
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Figure 1 Map showing the location of some displaced model villages with respect to flood extent
Source: PDMA Office, 2011.
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