ammonia-water

Topics: Thermodynamics, Heat, Temperature Pages: 27 (21726 words) Published: October 31, 2014
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 31 (2014) 681–707

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

An overview of ammonia-based absorption chillers and heat pumps Wei Wu, Baolong Wang, Wenxing Shi, Xianting Li n
Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 27 January 2013
Received in revised form
24 September 2013
Accepted 19 December 2013
Available online 22 January 2014

The use of ammonia-based working fluids for absorption prevails in a wide range of applications due to the low freezing temperature of the refrigerant and the absence of crystallization as well as the lack of problems under vacuum conditions. This paper presents a comprehensive overview on the use of ammonia-based absorption chillers and heat pumps. The thermodynamic and physical properties of pure ammonia and binary and ternary ammonia mixtures are presented in correlation formulas. Developments and applications in subfreezing refrigeration, heating/domestic hot water, renewable energy utilization, waste heat recovery, thermal energy storage and miniaturization of absorption systems are presented and summarized. In subfreezing refrigeration, the evaporation temperatures for single-stage absorption lie mainly between À 30 1C and À 5 1C, and they can reach as low as À 70 1C in advanced absorption systems. Air-source and ground-source absorption heat pumps are suggested for heating/ domestic hot water applications in cold regions. For renewable energy uses, ammonia-based solar absorption applications with various working fluids are quite popular, whereas geothermal and biomass energy systems are less studied. In thermal energy storage, ammonia-based working fluids are not advantageous for storage capacity or cycle efficiency, but they prevail for subfreezing energy storage. Additionally, ammonia-based fluids are also attractive options for the miniaturization of absorption systems due to the absence of crystallization.

& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Absorption heat pump
Fluid properties
Subfreezing refrigeration
Heating
Renewable energy
Energy storage

Contents
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Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682 Ammonia-based absorption working fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683 2.1.

Various ammonia-based working fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683 2.2.

Thermodynamic and physical properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684 2.2.1.

Pure ammonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684 2.2.2.

Binary working fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684 2.2.3.

Ternary working fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686 Subfreezing refrigeration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
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