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Topics: Race, Ethnic group
8-29-13
AMETH 160

what is race?
-a product of beliefs about human differences. thus race is a human invention subject to society's interpretation.

what is a race?
-a human group that defines itself or is defined by other groups as different based upon what society perceives to be biological or unchangeable physical characteristics.
-these real or alleged physical characteristics have been assigned a value of inferiority or superiority by society members.

what is racism?
-a set of principles and beliefs that lead to the differential treatment of various ethnic/racial groups.

where does racism come from? it began in the last 18th century.
-1770s Immanuel Kant coins "races of mankind"
-1775 Johann Blumenbach (1781, 1795) --birth of "caucasian" and racial hierarchy [came up with the term caucasian] TEST QUESTION
-1781 Jefferson suggests innate Black inferiority

racial hierarchy
-the stratification of subsequent inequality among physically distinct groups.

racialization
-the PROCESS by which those in dominant groups have defined and constructed certain other groups as racially inferior or superior for the purpose of social placement, dominant group enrichment, segregation or oppression.

ideological racism
-ideology - 1) a belief system or a world view; a coherent stucture of thinking which obscures incongruous elements in order to uphold a particular social order. 2) set of beliefs and goals of social or political group that explains of justify the groups decisions and behavior.

racial framing
-an organized set of racial ideas, stereotypes, images, emotions, and inclinations to discriminate. the US resets on white racial framing.

discrimination
-actions carried out by members of dominant groups that have a differential and harmful effect of members of subordinate racial or ethnic groups.

ethnic group is a SOCIAL group
- groups ditiguished primarily on the basis of cultural, religious, linguistic, or national-orgin characteristics.
-ethnic groups - cultural differences
-racial groups - physical differences

culture
-the shared values, understandings, symbols, and practices of a group of people.
-these symbols allow people to "communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and attitudes toward life."

stereotypes
-are OVERGENERALIZATION that go beyond existing evidence
-stereotypes involve generalizations about the "typical" characteristics of members of the groups. Jane is a female, so she probably has characteristics x,y,z...
-operate at both the conscious and unconscious level.

prejudice
-attitude toward the members of some groups based solely on people's membership in those groups (can be positive or negative)

discrimination
-individual 1)isolate 2) small group
-institutional 1) direct institutional 2) indirect institutional
-overt
-subtle/covert
-systemic

what are the functions of prejudice, stereotypes, and racism?
-to justify the unequal distribution of societys wealth
-to maintain societys status quo
-to defend racial privelege

externalization function

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