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American Revolution and Colonies

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CHAPTER [ 7 ]
The Road to Revolution, 1763–1775
PART I: Reviewing the Chapter
A. Checklist of Learning Objectives
After mastering this chapter, you should be able to: [ 1 ]. Explain the ideas of republicanism and radical Whiggery that Britain’s American colonists had adopted by the eighteenth century. [ 2 ]. Describe the theory and practice of mercantilism, and explain why Americans resented it. [ 3 ]. Explain why Britain adopted policies of tighter political control and higher taxation of Americans after 1763 and how these policies sparked fierce colonial resentment. [ 4 ]. Describe the first major new British taxes on the colonies and how colonial resistance forced repeal of all taxes, except the tax on tea, by 1770. [ 5 ]. Explain how colonial agitators kept resistance alive from 1770–1773. [ 6 ]. Indicate why the forcible importation of taxable British tea sparked the Boston Tea Party, the Intolerable Acts, and the outbreak of conflict between Britain and the colonists. [ 7 ]. Assess the balance of forces between the British and the American rebels as the two sides prepared for war.
B. Glossary
To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms. [ 1 ]. patronage A system in which benefits, including jobs, money, or protection are granted in exchange for political support. “The Whigs mounted withering attacks on the use of patronage and bribes by the king’s ministers. . . .” [ 2 ]. mercantilism The economic theory that all parts of a nation’s or empire’s economy should be coordinated for the good of the whole state; hence, that colonial economic welfare should be subordinated to that of the imperial power. “The British authorities nevertheless embraced a theory called mercantilism. . . .” [ 3 ]. depreciate To decrease in value, as in the decline of the purchasing power of money. “. . . dire financial need forced many of the colonies to issue paper money, which swiftly depreciated.” [ 4 ]. veto The constitutional right of a ruler or executive to block legislation passed by another unit of government. “This royal veto was used rather sparingly. . . .” [ 5 ]. monopoly The complete control of a product or sphere of economic activity by a single producer or business. “Virginia tobacco planters enjoyed a monopoly in the British market. . . .” [ 6 ]. admiralty courts In British law, special administrative courts designed to handle maritime cases without a jury. “Both the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act provided for trying offenders in the hated admiralty courts. . . .” [ 7 ]. virtual representation The political theory that a class of persons is represented in a lawmaking body without direct vote. “Elaborating the theory of ‘virtual representation,’ Grenville claimed that every member of Parliament represented all British subjects, even . . . Americans. . . .” [ 8 ]. nonimportation agreement Pledges to boycott, or decline to purchase, certain goods from abroad. “More effective than the congress was the widespread adoption of nonimportation agreements. . . .” [ 9 ]. mulatto A person of mixed African and European ancestry. “. . . Crispus Attucks [was] described . . . as a powerfully built runaway ‘mulatto.’. . . ” [ 10 ]. duty (duties) A customs tax on the export or import of goods. “. . . finally persuaded Parliament to repeal the Townshend revenue duties.” [ 11 ]. propaganda (propagandist) A systematic program or particular materials designed to promote certain ideas; sometimes but not always the term is used negatively, implying the use of manipulative or deceptive means. (A propagandist is one who engages in such practices.) “Resistance was further kindled by a master propagandist and engineer of rebellion, Samuel Adams of Boston. . . .” [ 12 ]. boycott An organized refusal to deal with some person, organization, or product. “The Association called for a complete boycott of British goods. . . .” [ 13 ]. inflation An increase in the supply of currency relative to the goods available, leading to a decline in the purchasing power of money. “Inflation of the currency inevitably skyrocketed prices.” [ 14 ]. desert To leave official government or military service without permission. “. . . hundreds of anxious husbands and fathers deserted.”
Part II: Checking Your Progress
A. True-False
Where the statement is true, circle T; where it is false, circle F. [ 1 ]. T F The republican idea of a just society, in which selfish interests were subordinated to the common good, took deep root in Britain’s North American colonies. [ 2 ]. T F The theory of mercantilism held that colonies existed primarily to provide the mother country with raw materials as well as a market for exports. [ 3 ]. T F British mercantilism prohibited the colonies from printing their own paper money. [ 4 ]. T F In practice, British mercantilism provided the colonies with substantial economic benefits such as military protection and guaranteed markets for certain goods. [ 5 ]. T F The fundamental motive behind the steep new taxes in the 1760s was to repay the large debt that Britain had incurred in defending its North American colonies. [ 6 ]. T F Americans generally accepted the right of Parliament to tax the colonies to provide money for defense, but denied its right to legislate about colonial affairs. [ 7 ]. T F When Americans first cried “no taxation without representation,” what they wanted was to have their own representatives elected to the British Parliament. [ 8 ]. T F The colonies finally forced repeal of the Stamp Act by organizing political protests and enforcing nonimportation agreements against British goods. [ 9 ]. T F The new British Townshend Acts were not direct taxes, but rather required colonists to shelter and feed British troops in their homes. [ 10 ]. T F The Boston Massacre provoked colonial outrage because the British troops suddenly opened fire on peaceful Boston citizens without any provocation. [ 11 ]. T F After the repeal of the Townshend Act, the spirit of colonial resistance was kept alive largely by agitators like Samuel Adams and his Committees of Correspondence. [ 12 ]. T F Even though the Quebec Act was not really part of the Intolerable Acts, the colonists thought it especially oppressive because of their fear that it would expand Roman Catholicism. [ 13 ]. T F The First Continental Congress proclaimed that the colonies would declare independence from Britain unless their grievances were redressed. [ 14 ]. T F One fundamental American asset in the impending war with Britain was an extensive stockpile of military weapons and supplies. [ 15 ]. T F A key British advantage was that they did not have to defeat all the rebellious American forces, but only fight to a draw in order to crush the Revolution.
B. Multiple Choice
Select the best answer and circle the corresponding letter. [ 1 ]. The British theory of mercantilism, by which the colonies were governed, held that
a. a nation’s economy should be entirely shaped by free market forces, without government interference. [ b ]. the colonies should develop by becoming as economically self-sufficient as possible. [ c ]. the colonial economy should be carefully controlled to serve the home country’s needs. [ d ]. colonists could develop economic growth by trading with whatever country offered the best profits. [ e ]. the mother country and the colonies should each specialize in producing goods where they had a comparative economic advantage. [ 2 ]. One of the ways in which mercantilism harmed the colonial economy was by [ a ]. prohibiting colonial merchants from owning and operating their own ships. [ b ]. inhibiting the development of banking and paper currency in the colonies. [ c ]. forcing the colonists to fall into debt through the purchase of goods on credit. [ d ]. forcing Virginia tobacco planters to sell their product only in Britain. [ e ]. taxing colonial goods at a higher rate than the same goods produced in Britain. [ 3 ]. The mobilization of nonimportation policies against the Stamp Act was politically important because it [ a ]. aroused the first French support for the American cause. [ b ]. aroused revolutionary fervor among many ordinary American men and women. [ c ]. reinforced the completely nonviolent character of the anti-British movement. [ d ]. helped stimulate the development of colonial manufacturing. [ e ]. crippled the British shipping industry.

[ 4 ]. When British officials decided to enforce the East India Company’s tea monopoly and the three-pence tax on tea, [ a ]. they were successful in landing the tea everywhere except Boston. [ b ]. colonists were outraged because their favorite beverage would cost more than ever before. [ c ]. the colonists persuaded friendly Indian tribes to dump the tea into Boston harbor. [ d ]. colonists were outraged because they saw it as a trick to undermine their principled resistance to the tax. [ e ]. the nonimportation agreements required Americans to switch to other beverages. [ 5 ]. The most intolerable of the Intolerable Acts that the British imposed as punishment for the Boston Tea Party were [ a ]. the Quebec Act permitting Catholic expansion and overturning anti-Catholic Massachusetts laws. [ b ]. the laws undermining the Massachusetts colonial charter and restricting town meetings. [ c ]. the law re-asserting Parliament’s right to tax the colonies and doubling the tax on tea. [ d ]. the law ending colonial self-governance and imposing martial law on Massachusetts. [ e ]. closing the port of Boston and the Quartering Act lodging British soldiers in private homes. [ 6 ]. American colonists especially resented the Townshend Acts because [ a ]. they strongly disliked the British minister, “Champagne Charley” Townshend, who proposed them. [ b ]. the revenues from the taxation would go to support British officials and judges in America. [ c ]. they called for the establishment of the Anglican church throughout the colonies. [ d ]. the taxes were to be imposed directly by the king without an act of Parliament. [ e ]. the administration of the tax laws was so corrupt. [ 7 ]. The passage of the Quebec Act aroused intense American fears because it [ a ]. put the French language on an equal standing with English throughout the colonies. [ b ]. involved stationing British troops throughout the colonies. [ c ]. seemed likely to stir up ethnic divisions within the thirteen colonies south of Canada. [ d ]. threatened to make Canada the dominant British colony in North America. [ e ]. extended Catholic jurisdiction and a non-jury judicial system into the English-speaking Ohio country. [ 8 ]. The most important action the First Continental Congress took to protest the Intolerable Acts was [ a ]. forming the Association to impose a complete boycott of all British goods. [ b ]. organizing a colonial militia to prepare for military resistance. [ c ]. forming Committees of Correspondence to communicate among all the colonies and develop political opposition to British rule. [ d ]. sending petitions to the British Parliament demanding repeal of the laws. [ e ]. adopting a provisional declaration of independence, which would go into effect if the law were not repealed. [ 9 ]. The event that precipitated the first real shooting between the British army and American colonists was the [ a ]. British attempt to seize Bunker Hill and the Old North Church. [ b ]. British attempt to seize colonial supplies and leaders at Lexington and Concord. [ c ]. Boston Tea Party. [ d ]. Boston Massacre. [ e ]. American burning of a British tea ship at Annapolis, Maryland.

[ 10 ]. The British parliamentary government at the time of the American Revolution was headed by [ a ]. William Pitt. [ b ]. “Champagne Charley” Townshend. [ c ]. Edmund Burke. [ d ]. Lord North. [ e ]. Thomas Hutchinson. [ 11 ]. At the time of the American Revolution, the population of Britain was approximately _____
_____ than the population of the thirteen American colonies. [ a ]. five times larger [ b ]. one-third smaller [ c ]. ten times larger [ d ]. three times larger [ e ]. one-tenth smaller [ 12 ]. The British political party that was generally more sympathetic to the American cause was the [ a ]. Tory Party. [ b ]. Labour Party. [ c ]. Country Party. [ d ]. Whig Party. [ e ]. Liberal Party. [ 13 ]. One of the advantages the British enjoyed in the impending conflict with the colonies was [ a ]. a determined and politically effective government. [ b ]. the ability to enlist foreign soldiers, Loyalists, and Native Americans in their military forces. [ c ]. a highly motivated and efficiently run military force in America. [ d ]. the concentration of colonial resistance in a few urban centers. [ e ]. the strong backing of the other European great powers. [ 14 ]. One of the advantages the colonists enjoyed in the impending conflict with Britain was [ a ]. fighting defensively on a large, agriculturally self-sufficient continent. [ b ]. a well-organized and effective political leadership. [ c ]. a strong sense of unity among the various colonies. [ d ]. the fact that nearly all Americans owned their own firearms. [ e ]. a small but effective navy that could harass British shipping. [ 15 ]. In the Revolutionary War, African Americans [ a ]. unanimously supported the American patriot cause. [ b ]. were generally neutral between the British and American forces. [ c ]. were used only as servants and manual labor by the American army. [ d ]. took the opportunity to stage substantial slave revolts. [ e ]. fought in both the American patriot and British loyalist military forces.
C. Identification
Supply the correct identification for each numbered description. [ 1 ]. __________ The basic economic and political theory by which seventeenth- and eighteenth- century European powers governed their overseas colonies [ 2 ]. __________ The early modern political theory, modeled on ancient Greek and Roman ideas, that a just and stable society required citizens to subordinate their individual interests to support the common good [ 3 ]. __________ The eighteenth-century British political theorists, popular in the colonies, who argued that centralized government power inevitably led to political corruption and destruction of individual rights and liberties [ 4 ]. __________ The first law, passed in 1764, that aimed specifically to raise revenue in the colonies for benefit of the British crown [ 5 ]. __________ British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members [ 6 ]. __________ The effective form of organized colonial resistance against the Stamp Act, which made homespun clothing fashionable [ 7 ]. __________ The product taxed under the Townshend Acts that generated the greatest colonial resistance [ 8 ]. __________ Underground networks of communication and propaganda, initiated by Samuel Adams, that sustained colonial resistance even when public anger died down from 1770–1773 [ 9 ]. __________ A spectacular protest by men disguised as Indians that actually destroyed large quantities of a valuable product and provoked fierce governmental repression [ 10 ]. __________ Religion that was granted toleration in the trans-Allegheny West by the Quebec Act, arousing deep colonial hostility [ 11 ]. __________ German mercenaries hired by George III to fight the American revolutionaries [ 12 ]. __________ Paper currency authorized by Congress to finance the Revolution depreciated to near worthlessness [ 13 ]. __________ Effective organization created by the First Continental Congress to provide a total, unified boycott of all British goods [ 14 ]. __________ Rapidly mobilized colonial militiamen whose refusal to disperse sparked the first battle of the Revolution [ 15 ]. __________ Popular term for British regular troops, scorned as “lobster backs” and “bloody backs” by Bostonians and other colonials
D. Matching People, Places, and Events
Match the person, place, or event in the left column with the proper description in the right column by inserting the correct letter on the blank line. [ 1 ]. ___ John Adams [ 2 ]. ___ George Grenville [ 3 ]. ___ Stamp Act [ 4 ]. ___ Sons and Daughters of Liberty [ 5 ]. ___ “Champagne Charley” Townshend [ 6 ]. ___ Crispus Attucks [ 7 ]. ___ George III [ 8 ]. ___ Samuel Adams [ 9 ]. ___ Boston Tea Party [ 10 ]. ___ Intolerable Acts [ 11 ]. ___ Thomas Hutchinson [ 12 ]. ___ The Association13. ___ Marquis de Lafayette [ 14 ]. ___ Baron von Steuben [ 15 ]. ___ Quartering Act | [ a ]. British minister who raised a storm of protest by passing the Stamp Act [ b ]. Legislation passed in 1765, but repealed the next year, after colonial resistance made it impossible to enforce [ c ]. The organization created by the First Continental Congress to enforce a total boycott of all British goods in America [ d ]. Legislation that required colonists to feed and shelter British troops; disobeyed in New York and elsewhere [ e ]. Nineteen-year-old major general in the Revolutionary army [ f ]. Massachusetts leader who successfully opposed compromise and promoted colonial rights in the First Continental Congress [ g ]. Minister whose clever attempt to impose import taxes nearly succeeded, but eventually brewed trouble for Britain [ h ]. Zealous defender of the common people’s rights and organizer of underground propaganda committees [ i ]. Harsh measures of retaliation for a tea party, including the Boston Port Act closing that city’s harbor [ j ]. Stubborn ruler, lustful for power, who promoted harsh ministers like Lord North [ k ]. Alleged leader of radical protesters killed in Boston Massacre [ l ]. Organizational genius who turned raw colonial recruits into tough professional soldiers [ m ]. Male and female organizations that enforced the nonimportation agreements, sometimes by coercive means [ n ]. British governor of Massachusetts whose stubborn policies helped provoke the Boston Tea Party [ o ]. Event organized by men disguised as Indians to sabotage British support of a British East India Company monopoly |
E. Putting Things in Order
Put the following events in correct order by numbering them from 1 to 10. [ 1 ]. __________ Britain attempts to gain revenue by a tax on papers and documents, creating a colonial uproar. [ 2 ]. __________ Britain closes the port of Boston and opens the western frontier to Catholicism. [ 3 ]. __________ Crispus Attucks leads a crowd in an attack on British troops, and eleven people are killed. [ 4 ]. __________ Colonial Minute Men fire “the shot heard around the world” in the first battle of the Revolution. [ 5 ]. __________ A British minister cleverly attempts to gain revenue and dampen colonial protest by imposing an import tax only on certain specialized products. [ 6 ]. __________ A British agency is established with broad but generally ineffective power over colonial commerce. [ 7 ]. __________ Samuel Adams and others organize revolutionary cells of communication and agitation across the colonies. [ 8 ]. __________ Parliament repeals a direct tax in response to colonial protest but declares that it has the right to tax colonies. [ 9 ]. __________ A band of men disguised as Indians dumps the rich cargo of the British East India Company into Boston Harbor, provoking a harsh British response. [ 10 ]. __________ First acts are passed by Parliament to regulate colonial trade based on mercantilist principles.
F. Matching Cause and Effect
Match the historical cause in the left column with the proper effect in the right column by writing the correct letter on the blank line. Cause | Effect | [ 1 ]. ___ America’s distance from Britain and the growth of colonial self-government [ 2 ]. ___ British mercantilism [ 3 ]. ___ The large British debt incurred defending the colonies in the French and Indian War [ 4 ]. ___ Passage of the Stamp Act [ 5 ]. ___ British troops sent to enforce order in Boston [ 6 ]. ___ The British government’s attempt to maintain the East India Company’s tea monopoly [ 7 ]. ___ The Boston Tea Party [ 8 ]. ___ The Intolerable Acts [ 9 ]. ___ A British attempt to seize the colonial militia’s gunpowder supplies [ 10 ]. ___ The Continental Congress’s reluctance to tax Americans for war | [ a ]. Prompted the summoning of the First Continental Congress [ b ]. Led Grenville to propose the Sugar Act, Quartering Act, and Stamp Act [ c ]. Precipitated the Battle of Lexington and Concord [ d ]. Fired on colonial citizens in the Boston Massacre [ e ]. Prompted passage of the Intolerable Acts, including the Boston Port Act [ f ]. Resulted in the printing of large amounts of paper currency and skyrocketing inflation [ g ]. Enforced restrictions on colonial manufacturing, trade, and paper currency [ h ]. Led to gradual development of a colonial sense of independence years before the Revolution [ i ]. Spurred patriots to stage Boston Tea Party [ j ]. Was greeted in the colonies by the nonimportation agreements, the Stamp Act Congress, and the forced resignation of stamp agents |
G. Developing Historical Skills
Interpreting Historical Illustrations
Contemporary illustrations of historical events may not only give us information about those events but tell us something about the attitude and intention of those who made the illustrations. The caption to the engraving of the Boston Massacre by Paul Revere (p. 133) observes that it is “both art and propaganda.” Drawing on the account of the massacre in the text (pp. 132–133) enables you to see the ways in which Revere’s engraving combines factual information with a political point of view. Answer the following questions. [ 1 ]. What parts of the encounter between the British redcoats and the colonists does the engraving entirely leave out?

[ 2 ]. The text says that the British troops fired “without orders.” How does the engraving suggest the opposite?

[ 3 ]. How does Revere’s presentation of the colonial victims seem especially designed to inflame the feelings of the viewer?

Part III: Applying What You Have Learned [ 1 ]. What central political ideas had colonial Americans developed by the eighteenth century that made them deeply suspicious of centralized authority and fervent in defense of their rights? [ 2 ]. How and why did the Americans and the British differ in their views of taxation and of the relationship of colonies to the empire? [ 3 ]. What was the theory and practice of mercantilism? Was mercantilism actually as economically oppressive as the colonists came to believe? Were the psychological effects of colonial dependence less or more important than the economic ones? [ 4 ]. Prior to the outbreak of violence in 1775, what essentially nonviolent methods did the colonists use in their struggle with British authorities? Were these methods effective in achieving colonial goals? How did the British respond to them? [ 5 ]. What advantages and disadvantages did the American rebels and the British each possess as the war began? What did each side do to mobilize its resources most effectively?

[ 6 ]. At various times during the decade from 1765–1775, the British government backed down and sought compromise with the American colonies. Why did it react so differently, and harshly, after the Boston Tea Party? Was there any possibility that the Empire could have been repaired after the imposition of the Intolerable Acts? [ 7 ]. Could the American people have won their independence without George Washington and the small, professional Continental Army? Why have the myths of the militiamen and the part-time citizen-soldiers (Minute Men) loomed almost larger in American memories of the Revolutionary War than memories of Washington’s trained professional military? [ 8 ]. Was the American Revolution inevitable? Or could the thirteen colonies have remained attached to Britain for many years and then peacefully achieved their independence as the British colonies of Canada and Australia later did? How would the meaning of America have been different without this violent revolt from the home country?

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