1) At what point did revolution become inevitable? Explain with details. Revolution in colonial America became inevitable right after the conclusion of the French Indian War. Although victorious, this 7 year endeavor was extremely costly for Great Britain. Parliament needed to think of something quickly to fund the English war debts. Naturally, they decided to increase taxes on the colonies. It was these taxes (Stamp Act, Tea Act, Sugar Act) that truly began the spiraling roller coaster of conflicts that would ultimately end in revolution. Had the British Parliament decided not to tax the colonies unjustly in order to repay war debts, I believe revolution could have been avoided.
2) How did the relationship between the colonists and England change from 1754-1775? It is safe to say that the relationship between the American colonists and England steadily declined and worsened in the period 1754-75. Previous to these years British Parliament and royalty practiced the method of "salutary neglect" meaning they would interfere very little with colonial affairs. This all changed with the end of the 7 Years War (French Indian War), which initiated a series of taxes imposed by Great Britain in an attempt to fund their war debts. After this, parliament also decided to put in place the Proclamation of 1763 which stated that colonists were not allowed to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonists deliberately disobeyed this law proving that their relationship to England was worsening. This decay all led up to major events such as the Boston Massacre, the Gaspee Incident, and the Boston Tea Party.
3) How were Native Americans affected by the developments in colonial America 1754-1775? Describe how Native Americans responded to those developments. After losing land in the French Indian War, Native Americans were getting pushed back on their heels in the period 1754-1755. The Proclamation of 1763 stated that colonists were not allowed to move west of the Appalachian Mountains, however many disregarded this law and moved west anyways pushing back the Native Americans even further. Some Native Americans responded to colonial developments violently, such as Chief Pontiac. Pontiac's rebellion was a brutal uprising drawn from Native American dissatisfaction with British policy post French Indian War. 4) Which was a more decisive factor in prompting the colonists to revolt against British Rule? Economic restrictions and taxation. Most of the major demonstrations against British rule were direct results of unfair taxes that were imposed on the colonies. The sons and daughters of liberty organized boycots such as the Boston tea party to rebel against these taxes. While British military measures and infringement upon political rights were also key factors in fueling the revolution, the most important concept was taxation without representation. The major taxes were seen in the Sugar Act, Tea Act, and Stamp Act. Other economic restrictions included currency control which disallowed the use of paper money.
5) What role did colonial political and religious ideas have on the relationship between England and the colonies? Both political and religious ideals in the colonies gave incentive for revolution which ultimately worsened the relationship between England and the colonies. Political representatives in the colonies met at the 1st and 2nd continental congresses where ideas of liberty were discussed. Religion played a major role in the American Revolution because it gave colonists a moral incentive to revolt. Ministers and patriots preached that revolution was justified in the eyes of God. Some colonist saw it as their Christian duty to rise against England. All of these concepts (religious and political) , however, were rooted in John Locke's ideas of a social contract between rulers and the ruled. Britain ha violated this contract with the colonies.
6) To what extent were colonists united on the eve of the American Revolution? Many attempts at unity had occurred long before the eve of the revolution in 1775. Finally, by this time, colonists were getting a sense of strong unity and togetherness. When the British closed the Boston harbor due to the Boston tea party pre-war, other colonies sent supplies and goods to Massachusetts to help out. This is evidence that the colonies were coming together. What unified the colonies the most, was their common enemy. Americans from any of the 13 colonies shared the same dissatisfaction for the taxes and restrictions being imposed on them. This was shown in the congregation of the Stamp act congress and the 1st continental congress.
7) What impact did European involvement have on the Revolution? What impact did the revolution have on Europe? Without the help of the French, it would have been extremely difficult for the American colonies to defeat the British. The French sent military help and supplies to support the revolution's cause in America. Also European enlightenment ideals made their way to the minds of American colonists and played a huge role in sparking the revolt. It is safe to say that European involvement had a large impact on the revolution. The revolution also had a lasting impact on Europe itself. It returned the favor by inspiring other revolutions such as the French Revolution. Also a huge economic entity was lost by the British causing their economy to fall for a time.
8) What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? The Articles of Confederation had many weakness. They ultimately failed because they left too much power with the states. Federal government lacked the power to do much at all. With the concept of equal representation, 5 small states could cancel out what other more populace states wanted. It was a weak central government. Interstate commerce was an issue because of a lack of control. As far as strengths, the Articles set up what would become our congress and got the ball rolling on a new nation. There were just so many questions like how to maintain order with such a commitment to liberty, or what to do about distributing western lands. These crossroads haunted our early government.