American English

Topics: English language, American English, Dialect Pages: 27 (8566 words) Published: March 30, 2014


American English

CONTENTS

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………3

Chapter I. Historical background of American English…………………………………..6 Chapter II. Characteristic features of American English………………………………...12 2.1 . Phonology…………………………………………………………………………13 2.2 . Vocabulary…………………………………………………………………………17 2.3 . Grammar…………………………………………………………………………...23

Conclusions……………………………………………………………………………..27 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………30 Appendix 1
Appendix 2

Introduction
Every language allows different kinds of variations: geographical or territorial, perhaps the most obvious, stylistic, the difference between the written and the spoken form of the standard national language and others. It is the national language of England proper, the USA, Australia, New Zealand and some provinces of Canada. It is the official language of Wales, Scotland, in Gibraltar and on the island of Malta. Modern linguistics distinguishes territorial variants of a national language and local dialects. Variants of a language are regional varieties of a standard literary language characterized by some minor peculiarities in the sound system, vocabulary and grammar and by their own literary norms. The variety of English spoken in the USA has received the name of American English. The term variant or variety appears most appropriate for several reasons. American English cannot be called a dialect although it is a regional variety, because it has a literary normalized form called Standard American, whereas by definition given above a dialect has no literary form. Neither is it a separate language, as some American authors claimed, because it has neither grammar nor vocabulary of its own. From the lexical point of view one shall have to deal only with a heterogeneous set of Americanisms. There are thousands of differences in detail between British and American English, and occasionally they crowd together enough to make some difficulty. If you read that “a man, having trouble with his lorry, got out his spanner and lifted the bonnet to see what was the matter”, you might not realize that “the driver of the truck had taken out his wrench and lifted the hood”. It is amusing to play with such differences, but the theory that the American language is now essentially different from English does not hold up. It is often very difficult to decide whether a book was written by an American or an English man. Even in speech it would be hard to prove that national differences are greater than some local differences in either country. On the whole, it now seems probable that the language habits of the two countries will grow more, rather than less, alike, although some differences will undoubtedly remain and others may develop. The differences between American and British are not due to Americans changing from a British standard. American is not corrupt British plus barbarisms. Rather, both American and British evolved in different ways from a common sixteenth-century ancestral standard. Present-day British is no closer to that earlier form than present-day American is. Indeed, in some ways present-day American is more conservative, that is, closer to the common original standard than is present-day British. The theme of my course paper is “American English”. The research is of current importance because there is no systematic scientific analysis of the American and British English divergences. The object of the research is the American variant of the English language. The subject of the research is the phonological, lexical and grammatical peculiarities of American English. The objective of my course paper is to investigate the American variant peculiarities of the English language. The following tasks were set to achieve the objective: 1. to study the historical background of American English;

2. to emphasize the phonological differences of American English; 3. to make the contrastive analysis of the American English and British...

Bibliography: 2. Маковский М.М. Английская диалектология. Современные английские территориальные диалекты Великобритании. – Москва: Высшая школа, 1980. – 192 c.
6. Bailey, Richard W. American English: Its origins and history. In E. Finegan & J. R. Rickford (Eds.), Language in the USA: Themes for the twenty-first century. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. – pp.3-17.
7. Chambers J.K., Trudgill P. Dialectology. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. – 201 p.
8. Finegan, Edward. English in North America. In R. Hogg & D. Denison (Eds.), A history of the English language. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. – pp.384-419.
10. Hudson R.R Sociolinguistics. – 2nd.edn. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. – 279 p.
11. Hughes A., Trudgill P. English accents and dialects: An introduction to social and regional variants of British English. – 3d edn. – London, 1996. – 142 p.
12. Labov W. Principles of linguistic change. – Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. – 250 p.
13. Labov W. Sociolinguistic Patterns. – 11th edn. – Philadelphia, 1991. – 344 p.
16. Orton H. The linguistic atlas of England. – London: Croom Helm, 1978. –
228 p.
17. Orton H., Dieth E. Survey of English dialects. – Leeds, 1967. – Vol. 4. – 384 p.
18. Orton H., Wright N. Word-Geography of England. – London, 1973. – 350 р.
19. Trudgill P. Dialect in contact. – Oxford: Blackwell, 1986. – 174 p.
20. Trudgill P. Introducing language and society. – Penguin, 1992. – 79 p.
21. Trudgill P., Hannah J. International English. A guide to varieties of Standard English. – 3d edn. - London, New York: Arnold, 1994. – 156 p.
22. Wardhaugh R. An Introduction to sociolinguistics. – Oxford, 1986. – 380 p.
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