american and british english differences

Powerful Essays
Contents

Introduction 3

1 Historical review of British and American English 5
1.1 History of English language 5
1.2 History of American English 9
1.3 American and British have changed and go on changing 11

2 Differences between modern British and modern American English 14
2.1 Lexical difference between American and British English 14
2.2 Grammatical difference between American and British English 18
2.3 Spelling differences between American and British English 24

Conclusion 27

Bibliography 29

Introduction

All the sounds in all languages are always in process of change. During those times when people from different regions communicated with each other not often, it was natural that the speech of all communities did not develop in one direction or at the same rate. Moreover, different parts of the country were subjected to different extreme influences, which were the reasons for different phonetic structures of the language. Especially, for the last five centuries, in Great Britain has existed the notion that one kind of pronunciation of English is preferable socially to others. One regional accent began to acquire social prestige. For reasons of politics, commerce and the presence of the Court, it was the pronunciation of the south-east of England and more particularly to that of the London Region, that this prestige was attached. This pronunciation is called Received Pronunciation which is regarded as a model for correct pronunciation, particularly for educated formal speech.
In the early part of the seventeenth century English settlers began to bring their language to America, and another series of changes began to take place. The settlers borrowed words from Indian languages for such strange trees as the hickory and persimmon, such unfamiliar animals as raccoons and woodchucks. Later they borrowed other words from settlers from other countries – for instance, chowder and prairie from the French, scow and sleigh from the Dutch. They made new



Bibliography: 1. Murphy Raymond. English Grammar in Use. - Cambridge University Press, 1997. 4. F.R.Palmer. Semantics. A new outline. - M. V.Sh. 1992. 5. Ильиш Б.А. Строй современного английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студ.пед.ин-тов.-2-е изд. - Л.: Просвещение, 2001. 6 7. Качалова К.Н., Израилевич Е.Е. Практическая грамматика английского языка с упражнениями и ключами. М, 1997. 8. Бархударов Л.С., Штелинг Д.А. Грамматика английского языка. - М., 2003. 9. Гальперин И.Р. Очерки по стилистике английского языка. - М., 2008. 10. Cronin A.J. The Citadel. - М., 1966. 11. Galsworthy J. To let. - М, 2004. 12. London I. Martin Eden. - М., 1994. 13. Green G. Quet Amerikan. - М., 1996. 14. Hardy T. Tess of the d’ Urbervilles. - М, 2000. 15 20. Gimson, A. C. Gimson’s Pronunciation of English. Sixth Edition. / Revised by Alan Gruttenden. London, New York: Edward Arnold, 2001. – 21 22. Leitner G. The Consolidation of “Educated Southern English” as a Model in the Early 20th Century // IRAL. 2002 23 25. Wells, John C.Accents of English. – Cambradge, London, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982. Books 1, 2,3. 26 27. Wells, John C. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. – Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2000. 28 33. Algeo, John The Cambridge history of the English language: English in North America (Vol. 6). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Ed.). (2001). 34. Bailey, Richard W. Images of English: A cultural history of the language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. (1991). 35. Bailey, Richard W. American English: Its origins and history. In E. Finegan & J. R. Rickford (Eds.), Language in the USA: Themes for the twenty-first century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (2004). 36. Bryson, Bill. Made in America: An informal history of the English language in the United States. New York: William Morrow. (1994). 37. Finegan, Edward. English in North America. In R. Hogg & D. Denison (Eds.), A history of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (2006). 38. Kretzschmar, William A. American English: Melting pot or mixing bowl? In K. Lenz & R. Möhlig (Eds.), Of dyuersitie and change of language: Essays presented to Manfred Görlach on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday Heidelberg: C. Winter. (2002). 39. Read, Allen Walker. Milestones in the history of English in America. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. (2002).

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