Alzheimer’s and Vascular Dementia
August 6, 2013
Dr. Brenda Edmonds
Alzheimer’s and Vascular Dementia
Before we can look into the affects and trends of Alzheimer’s in the Japanese community it is necessary to understand the history of Alzheimer’s. Over 100 years ago, Alois Alzheimer first described the clinical and pathological features of an unusual brain disease during the meeting of the Society of Southwest German Psychiatrists in Tübingen: the patient, Auguste Deter, suffered memory loss, disorientation, hallucinations and delusions and died at the age of 55. At this meeting of the South-West German Society of Alienists in November 1906 Alzheimer described "eine eigenartige Erkrankung der Hirnrinde" (a peculiar disease of the cerebral cortex) - the clinical and neuropathological features of Auguste D, the 51 year old woman who had died in the Frankfurt mental asylum. These type of patients were always placed in mental institutions. In 1910, Emil Kraepelin named the condition with the eponym of 'Alzheimer's disease' (AD) that is, now, the most common neurodegenerative disease with more than 25 million cases worldwide and a major medical problem nearing catastrophic levels. In his Handbook of Psychiatry, Kraepelin published the first classification of diseases. By the early 1890s, it became an international bestseller. Dementia was conceptualized in psychodynamic terms. It is true that the psychodynamic model of dementia did not directly contribute to the concepts and theories that dominate AD research today. But it did change the context of aging and dementia in important ways, without which AD could not have emerged as a major disease worthy of a massive, publicly supported research initiative. On July 26, 2012 Rearchers at the International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease in Chicago presented disappointing trial results on therapies targeting beta-amyloid plaques, the protein deposits found in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease. The Trends of Alzheimer’s and Vascular Dementia in a Japanese community is outstanding. There are approximately 23.4 Million people who suffer from dementia globally, and this is expected to increase in the next 20 years to about 81.1 million by 2040 due to the rapid increase in the number of elderly worldwide. In Japan, where the elderly population has been increasing faster than in other countries and the ratio of the elderly to the total population has become the highest in the world, it has been found that dementia has become a serious social, medical and economic problem. To effectively try to prevent the disease it requires a strategy based on information about the morbidity of dementia and its subtypes and its secular trends in general populations such as the Japanese population. A number of studies have investigated the prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in various populations worldwide. Only a few population-based studies have investigated secular trends in the prevalence of dementia in defined populations such as Japan, and there were very few studies examining these trends in the 2000’s.
The Hisayama Study is a prospective cohort study of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in a Community. The town of Hisayama is adjacent to the metropolitan area of Fukuoka, Japan. The population of the town has a good distribution of age, as well as occupational status and eating habits that are close to if not identical with those for the entire Japanese population. The population of the town has been stable for 50 years. A part of this study takes a four cross-sectional examinations of dementia have been conducted on Hisayama residents aged 65 or older. In 1985, a total of 938 residents in that age group were invited to participate in a cross sectional examination of dementia. After exclusion of 26 subjects who died, 10 who moved out of the town before the examination and 15 who refused the examination, 887...
References: History of Alzheimer 's Disease. Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies. Retrieved from http://hod.kcms.msu.edu/timeline.php?y=1864
Nature Medicine Journal (2012)
Sears, A. (2012). Dr. Sears ' Center for Health and Wellness. Build New Networks and Ward Off Age-Related Decline Retrieved from http://www.alzheimersprevention.org/pillar_4.htm
Retrieved from www.alz.org
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