Altruism is generally defined as any form of voluntary act intended to favor another without expectation of reward (Smith & Mackie, 200; Batson et al. 2002; Aronson et al., 2004)
Altruism is a specific kind of motivation to benefit another without consciously considering for one’s own self interest (Hall, 1999). Altruism refers to a kind of selfless help, which based on pure desire to help others (Aronson, Wilson, Akert, & Fehr, 2004).
(Aronson et al. 2004) have listed out some possible psychological benefit of helping, including increasing feeling of self-worth, maintaining social connection, gaining social approval and relieving one’s distress and guilty feeling.
Neuberg et al. (1997) concluded that people are motivated to help others by their desire to make their own guilt or bad feelings go away rather than increase the well-being of another person
Batson (1990) claims that altruism is selfless. He concluded that people help others simply because they care about them, not for any true benefit to themselves. The joy experienced by the helper is not the goal of helping, but is a by-product of the act. Batson et al. (2002) found that the helpful acts of individuals who have been in close proximity with others who have experienced injustice can at times be truly altruistic
It is believed that altruistic behavior would be more likely to be evoked when the helper is considered as an in-group member (Batson et. al., 2001). However, it seems those helping situations involving self interest are more common in daily lives, which possibly cover the bright side of people (Sabibi 1195).
(Batson et al.,2002, p.488) said that, “the greater the empathic emotion, the greater the altruistic motivation.” In other words, if people felt empathy, they will help regardless of whether it is in their interest to do s, even when the cost outweigh the rewards. (Allison