Alice in Quantumland, speaks about a law of the quantum world, which shows that electrons have no distinguishing features except for their spin. This law being all electrons are identical, except that some spin-up, whereas others spin-down. The electrons even spin at the same speed. This allows them to interact harmoniously with each other and to find pairs within their space based only on each other's spins. In the novel, Alice noted that nearby was another similar looking figure to the electron, to which the new acquaintance explained was a different electron. In the story, this principle is illustrated by some electron-beings carrying umbrellas which are either pointed up, and some electron-beings carrying their umbrellas pointed down. Contrastingly, in the macro world there are many distinctive features between different objects. Everything is apt to look differently or act differently unlike the electrons which all act and look the same way except for one detail, their spin. However, electrons do accommodate on detail of the macro world. For instance, identical twins, they look and usually act very similarly, but they are only told apart by very small distinctions in their personalities just like electrons are only categorized by their spin. The quantum world is a very different form of our macro world but still holds many similarities such as these that we see in our everyday lives. Electrons of the quantum world have only one distinctive feature, and countless other uniform ones, allowing for the near-uniformity of all electrons across all spectrums, whereas human beings have a myriad of characteristics unique to each one, culminating in a sense of diversity simply unparalleled in the quantum world.
The principle of superposition states that if the world can be in any configuration, any possible arrangement of particles or fields, and if the world could also be in another configuration, then the world can also be in a state which is a superposition of the two, where the amount of each configuration that is in the superposition is specified by a complex number. Superposition is a principle of quantum theory that describes a challenging concept about the nature and behavior of matter and forces at the sub-atomic level. The principle of superposition claims that while we do not know what the state of any object is, it is actually in all possible states simultaneously, as long as we don't look to check. It is the measurement itself that causes the object to be limited to a single possibility. This is different in the macro world because if an object is in one place it cannot be in another. If a student is in school he can’t be sleeping at home at the exact same time. It’s impossible to duplicate a person or an object in the macro world. In 1935, Erwin Schrodinger proposed an analogy to show how superposition would operate in the everyday world; the somewhat cruel analogy of Schrodinger's cat. Here's Schrödinger's (theoretical) experiment: We place a living cat into a steel chamber, along with a device containing a vial of hydrocyanic acid. There is, in the chamber, a very small amount of a radioactive substance. If even a single atom of the substance decays during the test period, a relay mechanism will trip a hammer, which will, in turn, break the vial and kill the cat. The observer cannot know whether or not an atom of the substance has decayed, and consequently, cannot know whether the vial has been broken, the hydrocyanic acid released, and the cat killed. Since we cannot know, the cat is both dead and alive according to quantum law, in a superposition of states. It is only when we break open the box and learn the condition of the cat that the superposition is lost, and the cat becomes one or the other (dead or alive). This situation is sometimes called quantum indeterminacy or the observer's paradox: the observation or measurement itself affects an outcome, so that the outcome as such does not exist...
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