Algebra 2

Topics: Animal, Phylum, Invertebrate Pages: 6 (2188 words) Published: September 15, 2014
Animal Kingdom
The animal kingdom is a taxonomic kingdom composed of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms. Mostly, their body structures become fixed as they develop, yet still some organisms in this kingdom have the ability to undergo metamorphosis. The majority of these organisms are motile, which means they can move on their own and with spontaneity. All animals are heterotrophic, which implies that they depend on other organisms for food. Animals live in places that provide their necessities to survive, called habitats. These basic necessities include food, water, protection from the environment, and appropriate space. In accordance with these necessities, there are a number of survival techniques used by organisms in this kingdom. These techniques can fall within the category of adaptations, which help these organisms adapt to various habitats. This kingdom falls in the domain Eukaryota, and there are nearly 40 different phyla that can be classified under the Kingdom Anamalia. Besides that there are 5 other lower levels in which these organisms can be classified, called class, order, family, genus and species. . Invertebrates

Invertebrates are apart of the Animal Kingdom and are characterized by their inability to possess or develop a vertebral column. In the world of taxonomy, the word invertebrate is merely a convenient term used to help with this characterization. A great majority of the animal kingdom are invertebrates due to the fact that only 4% of animal species even consist of a vertebral column in their composition. Invertebrates generally have bodies comprised of differentiated tissues that compensate for the lack of structural stability that is present in vertebrates. Some also have digestive chambers that have one or two openings to their exterior. Similar to vertebrates, invertebrates generally reproduce sexually and produce specialized reproductive cells that undergo meiosis. Those cells make smaller, motile spermatozoa or large, non-motile, ova. These form zygotes and finally develop into new individuals. Other invertebrates are capable of asexual reproduction, and in certain cases, some are capable of both methods of reproduction. Examples:

Insects
Worms
Clams
Crabs
Octopus
Snails
Starfish
Leeches
Squid
Barnacles
Vertebrates
Vertebrates in the Animal Kingdom are characterized primarily by the presence of their vertebral column. These animals make up the majority of the phylum Chordata, and about 64,000 vertebrates have been described as Chordates. Still, vertebrates are a minority in the animal kingdom, making up only 4% of animal species. All vertebrates have the same basic chordate body plan: a vertebral column or notochord running through the length of the animal, with the spinal cord above it. Also, in all vertebrates, the mouth is found near the anterior end of the body, whereas the anus opens to the exterior near the end of the body. Some vertebrates have the ability to breathe with gills. These are called basal vertebrates, meaning that they come from the base of the phylogenic tree or cladogram. Examples:

Tiger
Panda Bear
Koala
Kangaroo
Cat
Elephant
Fire Salamander
Ocean Sunfish
Crocodile
Sardine
Frog
Phylum Porifera
Porifera is a phylum in the Animal Kingdom that consists of multi-cellular organisms that have bodies full of pores—sponges. Nearly 5,000 species in total, sponges make up the phylum porifera, and are one of the simplest animals on the planet. The can be considered animals due to their lack of cell walls, and because they are heterotrophic and multicellular. Their natural habitat is generally in saltwater, but about 1% of the live in freshwater areas. Sponges can be attached to surfaces near 8 kilometers deep in the ocean. There are a high number of these animals in the tropics due to their preference for warm water. Their bodies are made of three “layers” of cells. The innermost layer is made up of cells called choanocytes. These cells are used to...
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