Algae ( singular alga , Latin for "seaweed") (IDELU, 1986) are a very large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophicorganisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelps that grow to 65 meters in length. They are photosynthetic like plants,and "simple" because their tissues are not organized into the many distinct organs found in land plants (Keeling, 2004). The algae have chlorophyll and can manufacture their own food through the process of photosynthesis. Almost all the algae are eukaryotes and conduct photosynthesis within membrane bound structure called chloroplasts. Cyanobacteria are organisms traditionally included among the algae, but they have a prokaryotic cell structure (www.oliage.com). Algae are an extremely important species. For one, they produce more oxygen than all the plants in the world, put together! For another, they form an important food source for many animals such as little shrimps and huge whales. Thus, they are at the bottom of the food chain with many living things depending upon them (Parfrey et al., 2006).
2. Classification of Algae:
There are different types of classification of algae on different basis, they are given below:
2.1 Primary Classification:
The classes are distinguished by the structure of flagellate cells (e.g., scales, angle of flagellar insertion, microtubular roots, and striated roots), the nuclear division process (mitosis), the cytoplasmic division process (cytokinesis), and the cell covering(Dring, 1992). This type of classification is given below (Table, 1).
Table1: Primary Classification of Algae.
No. Arrangement Type of Flagella
Starch (amylose -1-
2, 4 or many equal.
2 unequal, lateral,
smooth -1- tinsel
Whole group marine
2 equal, smooth
2 equal, lateral,
Nearly all species
Bhattachaayra and Medlin, 1998
2.2 Morphological Classification:
Morphological classification (Table-3) is classify on the basis of different types of thallus,which is contained by algae. Table 2: Morphological classification of Algae, with important or familiar examples of each category. Type of Thallus
References: Adl, Sina M. (2005), "The New Higher Level Classification of Eukaryotes with Emphasis on the Taxonomy of Protists", Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52 (5): pp. 399.
Annelies J. V. (2008), Algal Response To Nutrient Enrichment In Forested Oligotrophic Stream. Journal of Phycology, Phycological Society of America press 44: pp. 564–572.
Arad, S; Spharim, Ishai (1998). "Production of Valuable Products from Microalgae: An Emerging Agroindustry". Soils, Plants, and the Environment.61. CRC Press. pp. 638.
Aziz, A. and Islam A.K.M.N. 1987.Addition to the list of the marine algae of St. Martin’s Island, Bangladesh.ΙΙΙ.Red algae. Nova Hedwigia45: pp. 211-221.
Bhattacharya, D.; Medlin, L. (1998). "Algal Phylogeny and the Origin of Land Plants". Plant Physiology 116 (1): pp 9–15.
Casey, Tina. (24, September 2011). "Wrap Your Sandwich in Sustainable Bioplastic from Algae". Cleantechnica.
Chapman, V.J. (1950). Seaweeds and their Uses. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd
Connor, J.; Baxter, C
Dolah F.M.V. Marine Algal Toxins: Origins, Health Effects, and Their Increased Occurrence, (2000). Environ Health Perspect 1 08(suppi 1): pp. 33-141.
Dring, M. J.(1992), The Biology of Marine Plants, Cambridge University Press.
Giordano, M., Beardall, J. And Raven, J.A. (2005) Annu. Rev. Plant Biology. 56: pp 99–131.
Gopinath A. et. al., (2011) Environ. Forensics, vol.12(1); pp. 98-105.
Hoek, C. Vanden; Mann, D. G.; Jahns, H. M. (1995). Algae: An Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 165–218.
Huber, G.W., Dale, B.E. (2009). Biofuels: Grassoline at the Pump. Sci American. 301(1). pp. 52-59.
(ICRS) International Coral Reef Symposium, Australia, (1988). Nutrient Cycling In The Great Barrier Reef Aquarium. 6th conference, Vol. 2.
(IDELU) Webster 's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged with Seven Language Dictionary (1986).1. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Islam, A. K. M. N. and Alfasane,M.A. (2001 b). New records of some green planktonic algae for Bangladesh: Phacotus, Planktosphaeria and Nephrochlamys. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 8(2): pp. 51-56.
Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase (2004)."The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view". American Journal of Botany91 (10): pp. 1437–1445.
Jensen, A. (1979). Industrial utilization of seaweeds in the past, present and future. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposia, 9, pp. 17-34.
Kemp, W.M.(2000). Seagrass ecology and management: Seagrasses: monitoring, ecology, physiology, and management. pp. 1-6.
Landsberg, J.H. (2002). The effects of harmful algal blooms on aquatic organisms. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 10(2): pp. 113–390.
Lee, R.E. (2008). Phycology, 4th edition.Cambridge University Press.
Lobban, Christopher S; Wynne, Michael James (1981). The Biology of seaweeds.University of California Press.
Lewis, J G; Stanley, N F; Guist, G G (1988)."9 Commercial production of algal hydrocolloides".Vol. 1, 1st edition.Cambridge University Press.
Mchugh, Dennis J. (2003). "9, Other Uses of Seaweeds".A Guide to the Seaweed Industry:Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. pp441.
Medlin, L. K.; Kooistra, W. H. F.; Potter, D.; Saunders, G. W.; Andersen, R. A. (1997)."Phylogenetic relationships of the 'golden algae ' and their plastids". Origins of algae and their plastids: pp. 187–219.
Mondragon, J; Mondragon, J (2003).Seaweeds of the Pacific Coast. Monterey, California: Sea Challengers Publications.
Morton, Steve L. (2008) "Modern Uses of Cultivated Algae". Ethnobotanical Leaflets.Southern Illinois University Carbondale Press. pp. 149-153.
Mumford, T. F., &Muira, A. (1988). "Porphyra as food: cultivation and economics". Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 465.
Parfrey, L.W., Barbero, E.; Lasser, E.; Dunthorn, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Patterson, D.J.; and L. Katz, A.; (2006)."Evaluating Support for the Current Classification of Eukaryotic Diversity".2 (12): pp 647-663.
Patrick J. Keeling (2004)."Diversity and evolutionary history of plastids and their hosts".American Journal of Botany91 (10): pp 1481–1493.
Pearson, Lorentz C (1995). The Diversity and Evolution of Plants.CRC Press.pp. 221.
Phillips, (1990).Use of macroalgae and invertebrates as monitors of metal levels in estuaries and coastal waters. DJH, CRC Press, (USA). pp. 81-99.
Read, Clare Sewell (1849). "On the Farming of South Wales: Prize Report". Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England (London: John Murray) 10: pp 142–143.
Simoons, Frederick J (1991)."6, Seaweeds and Other Algae".Food in China: A Cultural and Historical Inquiry. CRC Press. pp. 179–190.
Smith, G.M. (1955) Ciyptogamic Botany, Vol. 1, 2nd edition.Mcgraw Hill Publishing co. Inc. New York;
(SNMNH) Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (2008)."Secondary Products of Brown Algae".Algae Research.
Tahmida, Z.N.; Alfasane, M.A.; Islam, M.A.; (2002). Association of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 with phytoplankton in a pond of Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Bot. 31(1): pp. 19-22.
Taylor, Dennis L (1983). "The coral-algal symbiosis".Algal Symbiosis: A Continuum of Interaction Strategies. CUP Archive. pp. 19–20.
Thomas, D. 2002. Seaweeds.The Natural History Museum, London.Vol 2: pp. 886-902.
Waggoner and Ben ( 18, December, 2008). "Introduction to the Rhodophyta, The red algae".University of California Museum of Palaeontology (UCMP).
Woelkerling, W. J., Cole, K. M., & Sheath, R. G., (1990).Biology of the Red Algae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 1–6.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document