Algae and diverse group

Topics: Algae, Algal bloom, Cyanobacteria Pages: 35 (5748 words) Published: January 25, 2014
1. Introduction:
Algae ( singular alga , Latin for "seaweed") (IDELU, 1986) are a very large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophicorganisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular  forms, such as the giant kelps  that grow to 65 meters in length. They are photosynthetic like plants,and "simple" because their tissues are not organized into the many distinct organs found in land plants (Keeling, 2004). The algae have chlorophyll and can manufacture their own food through the process of photosynthesis. Almost all the algae are eukaryotes and conduct photosynthesis within membrane bound structure called chloroplasts. Cyanobacteria are organisms traditionally included among the algae, but they have a prokaryotic cell structure (www.oliage.com). Algae are an extremely important species. For one, they produce more oxygen than all the plants in the world, put together! For another, they form an important food source for many animals such as little shrimps and huge whales. Thus, they are at the bottom of the food chain with many living things depending upon them (Parfrey et al., 2006).

2. Classification of Algae:
There are different types of classification of algae on different basis, they are given below:

2.1 Primary Classification:
The classes are distinguished by the structure of flagellate cells (e.g., scales, angle of flagellar insertion, microtubular roots, and striated roots), the nuclear division process  (mitosis), the cytoplasmic division process (cytokinesis), and the cell  covering(Dring, 1992). This type of classification is given below (Table, 1).

Table1: Primary Classification of Algae.
Division
Popular Name
Major Accessory
Pigments
Storage Products
No. Arrangement Type of Flagella
Major Marine
Representatives
Chlorophyta
Green algae
Chlorophyll b
Starch (amylose -1-
amylopectin)
2, 4 or many equal.
anterior, smooth
Siphonaceous orders.
Ulvales
Phaeophyta
Brown algae
Chlorophyll
C1+C2,
fucoxanthin
Laminaran
2 unequal, lateral,
smooth -1- tinsel
Whole group marine
Chrysophyta
Yellow-brown or
golden-brown
algae
Chlorophyll C1+C2,
fucoxanthin
Chrysolaminaran
1-3 anterior.
various
Diatoms,
coccolithophorids.
silicoflagellates
Pyrrhophyta
Dinoflagellates
Chlorophyll C2,
peridinin
Starch
2 equal, smooth
Dinoflagellates
Cryptophyta
Cryptomonads
Chlorophyll C2,
phycobilins
Starch
2 equal, lateral,
both tinsel
Some cryptomonads
Rhodophyta
Red algae
Phycoerythrinphycocyanin
Floridean starch
(amylopectin)
None
Nearly all species
marine
Cyanophyta
Blue-green
Algae
Phycocyanin
phycoerythrin
Myxophycean starch
glycogen-like
None
Planktonic and
benthic filaments
Bhattachaayra and Medlin, 1998
2.2 Morphological Classification:
Morphological classification (Table-3) is classify on the basis of different types of thallus,which is contained by algae. Table 2: Morphological classification of Algae, with important or familiar examples of each category. Type of Thallus

Charecteristics
Chlorophyta
Pyrrhophyta
Rhodophyta
Chrysophyta
Unicells
Flagellate
Dunaliella,
Dinoflagellates
_
Coccolithophorids,

Rhizopodial
_
'Marine amoebae'
_
'Marine amoebae'

Protococcoidal
Chlorella marina
_
Porphyridium
Diatoms
Colonies
Amorphous
Mostly freshwater
Ceratium
_
Colonial diatoms,

Coenobial
Entirely freshwater
_
_
-
Filaments
Unbranched
Ulothrix,
Oscillatoria, Lyngbya
_
Diatoms

Branched

Ectocarpus, Ralfsia
Porphyra
_

Heterotrichous
Crustose
Ulvella,Phaeophila

Desmarestia,Leathesia
Rhodochorton
Lithothamnion,
_

Pseudo-
parenchymatous
_
_
Chondrus, Eucheuma.
_
Coenocytes
Simple

Valonia, Acetabularia
_

_

_

Uniaxial

Derbesia, Caulerpa,
Codium, Udotea,
_
_
Vaucheria

Multiaxial
Halimeda
_
_
_
Perenchymetous
thelli
2-dimensional

Ulva,...


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