Alfred Adler Essay1

Topics: Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Psychoanalysis Pages: 17 (5923 words) Published: October 9, 2011
Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology.[1] In collaboration with Sigmund Freud and a small group of Freud's colleagues, Adler was among the co-founders of the psychoanalytic movement as a core member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. He was the first major figure to break away from psychoanalysis to form an independent school of psychotherapy and personality theory.[2] This was after Freud declared Adler's ideas as too contrary, leading to an ultimatum to all members of the Society (which Freud had shepherded) to drop Adler or be expelled, disavowing the right to dissent (Makari, 2008). Following this split, Adler would come to have an enormous, independent effect on the disciplines of counseling and psychotherapy as they developed over the course of the 20th century (Ellenberger, 1970). He influenced notable figures in subsequent schools of psychotherapy such as Rollo May, Viktor Frankl, Abraham Maslow and Albert Ellis.[3] His writings preceded, and were at times surprisingly consistent with, later neo-Freudian insights such as those evidenced in the works of Otto Rank, Karen Horney, Harry Stack Sullivan and Erich Fromm. Adler emphasized the importance of equality in preventing various forms of psychopathology, and espoused the development of social interest and democratic family structures for raising children.[4] His most famous concept is the inferiority complex which speaks to the problem of self-esteem and its negative effects on human health (e.g. sometimes producing a paradoxical superiority striving). His emphasis on power dynamics is rooted in the philosophy of Nietzsche, whose works were published a few decades before Adler's. However, Adler's conceptualization of the "Will to Power" focuses on the individual's creative power to change for the better.[5] Adler argued for holism, viewing the individual holistically rather than reductively, the latter being the dominant lens for viewing human psychology. Adler was also among the first in psychology to argue in favor of feminism making the case that power dynamics between men and women (and associations with masculinity and femininity) are crucial to understanding human psychology (Connell, 1995). Adler is considered, along with Freud and Jung, to be one of the three founding figures of depth psychology, which emphasizes the unconscious and psychodynamics (Ellenberger, 1970; Ehrenwald, 1991). |Contents | | [hide]  | |1 Personal life | |2 Career | |3 The Adlerian School | |4 Emigration | |5 Basic principles | |5.1 Adler's approach to personality | |5.2 Psychodynamics and teleology | |5.3 Constructivism and metaphysics | |5.4 Holism | |5.5 Typology | |5.6 On birth order | |5.7 On homosexuality | |5.8 Parent education | |5.9...

References: 1. ^ Hoffman, E (1994). The Drive for Self: Alfred Adler and the Founding of Individual Psychology. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. pp. 41–91. ISBN 0-201-63280-2. 
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3. ^ Stein, H.T. (2008). "Adler 's Legacy: Past, Present, and Future". Journal of Individual Psychology 64 (1): 4–20. 
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9. ^ Personality Theories – Alfred Adler by Dr. C. George Boeree citing Carl Furtmuller, 1965
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12. ^ Carrell, Severin (11 April 2011). "Ashes of psychoanalysis co-founder Alfred Adler found after 74 years". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/apr/10/alfred-adler-ashes-found-edinburgh. Retrieved 10 April 2011. 
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14. ^ "Alfred Adler - A Biography", G.P.Putnam 's Sons, New York (copyright 1939), chap. Chief Contributions to Thought, subchap. 7, The Masculine Protest, and subchap. 9, Three Life Tasks, page 160.
15. ^ Social Interest: A Challenge to Mankind, Alfred Adler, 1938, translated by Linton John, Richard Vaughan, p. 275
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• Adler, A. (1938). Social Interest: A Challenge to Mankind. J. Linton and R. Vaughan (Trans.). London: Faber and Faber Ltd.
• Adler, A. (1956). The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler. H. L. Ansbacher and R. R. Ansbacher (Eds.). New York: Harper Torchbooks.
• Connell, R. W. (1995). Masculinities. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
• Dreikurs, R. & Soltz, V. (1964). Children the Challenge. New York: Hawthorn Books.
• Ehrenwald, J. (1991). The History of Psychotherapy. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.
• Ellenberger, H. (1970). The Discovery of the Unconscious. New York: Basic Books.
• Fiebert, M. S. (1997). In and out of Freud 's shadow: A chronology of Adler 's relationship with Freud. Individual Psychology, 53(3), 241-269.
• King, R. & Shelley, C. (2008). Community Feeling and Social Interest: Adlerian Parallels, Synergy, and Differences with the Field of Community Psychology. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 18, 96-107.
• Manaster, G. J., Painter, G., Deutsch, D., & Overholt, B. J. (Eds.). (1977). Alfred Adler: As We Remember Him. Chicago: North American Society of Adlerian Psychology.
• Shelley, C. (Ed.). (1998). Contemporary Perspectives on Psychotherapy and Homosexualities. London: Free Association Books.
• Slavik, S. & King, R. (2007). Adlerian therapeutic strategy. The Canadian Journal of Adlerian Psychology, 37(1), 3-16.
• Gantschacher, H. (ARBOS 2007). Witness and Victim of the Apocalypse, chapter 13 page 12 and chapter 14 page 6.
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