Alexander The Great
The Macedonian empire was one of the greatest empires in world history. In 359 B.C., King Philip came to rule Macedonia. He developed a strong empire by forming a strong military and political system. In 356 B.C, Philip had a son, who later became historically known as Alexander the Great. Today, Alexander the Great is considered one of the greatest military leaders of all time.
Alexander the Great and his father, Philip, were very successful as conquerors while ruling the Macedonian Empire. Philip used a combination of bribery, persuasion, tribute and force to keep enemies away and to make sure he got what he wanted. Macedonian kings were normally polygamous, Philip included. Philip used marriage as an excellent military tactic to consolidate his power. He married seven women, including Alexander’s mother. Under Philip’s rule, Macedonia had the most superior cavalry around and became the most powerful state in the Greek peninsula. When Alexander the Great came to power in 336 B.C., he had inherited a large and successful empire that his father had built. The Macedonian army consisted 18,000 heavy infantry and 5,000 cavalry, larger than the armies of Sparta and Athens. As soon as Alexander took over Macedonia, he had all of his known enemies executed. Alexander and Philip were very ruthless and relentless rulers. They both showed love to their people and they befriended the people they conquered but they did not tolerate those who opposed them.
Alexander the Great was a military genius. When he inherited the army his father built, he made it greater than it already was. Philip was the first to use a catapult as a weapon for war, but Alexander expanded the range of the catapult and enhanced the accuracy of it. This became a deadly weapon for the Macedonians to use in warfare. Alexander’s military concept was based on speed, mobility and flexibility. Army men wore light armor so they could have quicker movement and they carried heavy striking weapons. Alexander’s army formation was called the Macedonian phalanx, created by Philip II, was sixteen rows deep and sixteen rows wide. Each man carried a sarrisa, a 20 ft. long pike, which was held with two hands. The men in the army were strapped with shields to go along with the long spears. This type of military led to the seize on many civilizations including major empires such as the Persian Empire and Egypt, which he later formed a city and named it Alexandria. When Alexander conquered new land he appointed representatives from conquered people to govern the people for him. Alexander conquered the “civilized world”, modern day Middle East, Greece and Egypt. Alexander was a student of Aristotle, a famous philosopher who also studied medicine. Therefore, he also took an interest in medicine. With this interest, he developed medical care for injured or wounded soldiers. Militarily, Alexander was ruthless, but politically, he was more sympathetic. Alexander wanted the people of the conquered civilizations to be untied with the rest of Macedonia. He did not want there to be tribal nations in Macedonia, he wanted them to all be seen as one people.
Alexander the Great was a very ambitious ruler. He had expanded the Macedonian empire to over 3,000 miles but he wanted more. He had plans to conquer Western Asia and the Eurasian Empire and a quest for a Hellenistic Empire. The purpose of a Hellenistic empire is "to imitate Greeks" by practicing Greek language, architecture, literature, and art. He wanted to fuse Macedonians, Greeks, and Persians by encouraging soldiers to marry native women. The Quest for a Hellenistic Empire took place from 334 to 323 B.C. In 334 B.C. Alexander entered Asia with an army of around 37,000 men both Greeks and Macedonians. By winter 332 B.C. Alexander had conquered Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. In 331 B.C. Alexander then moves east and gains control of the entire Persian Empire....
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