Al-Andalus was referred to as the areas of the Iberian Peninsula which were occupied by the Moors between 711-1492 AD. The Iberian Peninsula is the south western most part of Europe including Spain, Portugal, and France. The Moors were Muslim people of Arab descent who invaded or settled Al-Andalus from Northern Africa. Before the Moors came to the Iberian Peninsula, Spain was ruled under the Visigoths. Their kingdom quickly fell apart when the Moors first came to what is now referred to as Spain. When the Moors came they were actually welcomed and did not have much trouble taking over due to the worsening environment the Visigoths reign had established.
Abd ar-Rahman the 1st was the founder of the Umayyad dynasty of Cordoba. He was the grandson of the tenth Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik. At the age of 16, He fled his home city of Damascus due to the Abbasid revolt, which over threw the existing Umayyad caliphate. He fled from Damascus and made his way west to what was once land of the far reaching Umayyad Dynasty. It took him several years to reach Northern Africa because he was still being targeted by the newly established Abbasid dynasty. Al-Andalus had been conquered in the time of Abd ar-Rahman’s grandfather. However Abd ar-Rahman was not very sure how they would feel about him taking the thrown for himself. He was welcomed by the people and grew a large following, because most people thought he had been killed along with the rest of his family. He did face some opposition from the previous Emir, and at the river of Guadalquivir, both sides met to decide which would rule over Al-Andalus. His power would be tested several times by the old Emir, but he was never victorious. The Moors brought many things to what was once a barren Spain. They brought many innovations with them including architecture, agriculture, art, trade, sciences, math, and most importantly stable society. They also