AKHENATEN HSC NOTES

Topics: Trigraph Pages: 29 (11010 words) Published: April 20, 2015
Akhenaten:)Personality)Study)
Historical)Context)
Geography,+topography+and+resources+of+Egypt+and+its+Neighbors+ !







Located!on!the!north!east!coast!of!Africa!
Bordered!Libya,!Nubia,!Sinai!and!Mediterranean!sea.!Neighbored!with!Hittites!and! Mitanni!as!well.!!
Long!narrow!countrywide!cut!into!desert!cliffs.!
The!Nile:!provided!irrigation!for!crop!growing,!water,!fish,!mud!for!bricks,!leisure! pursuits!and!banks!for!papyrus!to!grow.!!
Upper!and!Lower!Egypt.!
Protected!by!some!natural!barriers!including!the!Mediterranean!sea!and!western! desert.!

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Trading!Resources:!
• Olive!oil!
• Wine!
• Timber!
• Oil!
• Cattle!
• Silver!
• Glass!
• Gold!
• Ebony!
• Animal!skins!
• Feathers!
• Wood!
!
Natural!Resources:!
• Wheat!
• Barley!
• Leeks!
• Cucumbers!
• Melons!
• Cattle!
• Flax!
• Mud!for!bricks!and!sandstone!
• SemiMprecious!stones!and!metals!
!
• Evidence!comes!from!the!Hymn!to!the!Nile!(1300!BCE).!!
)

Historical)Overview)of)the)18th)Dynasty)
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Overview+of+the+social,+political,+military+and+economic+structures+of+the+ 18th+Dynasty+
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18th!Dynasty!Egyptian!society!was!a!highly!stratified!and!complex!hierarchy,! dominated!by!the!pharaoh!and!his!court!!

Beneath!him!political,!economic,!religious!and!military!structure!carried!out!the! administration!of!Egypt!!
• Social!status!played!an!important!part!in!the!lives!of!ancient!Egyptians!! • Although!there!was!usually!low!social!mobility,!some!men!of!exceptional!ability! achieved!this!
!
Women!!
• Women!in!Egyptian!society!derived!their!social!status!from!the!men!they!belonged! to!!
• In!general!they!played!no!role!in!the!bureaucracy,!but!high!ranking!women!could! serve!as!members!of!religious!cults!
• !The!highest!ranking!woman!was!the!‘great!royal!wife’! • Tiye!was!the!great!!royal!wife!of!Amenhotep!III!and!carried!out!important!religious! and!diplomatic!roles!in!her!husband’s!reign!!
• Her!son’s!wife!Nefertiti,!went!on!to!play!a!great!role!in!Akhenaten’s!reign,!maybe! even!acting!as!coMregent!!

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Economy!!
• Egypt’s!prosperity!was!largely!dependent!on!the!efficient!production!and! distribution!of!grain!as!a!staple!of!the!economy!!
• This!explains!the!importance!of!the!Vizier!and!highMranking!members!of!the!civil! administration,!including!overseers!and!treasurers.!!
• They!were!supported!by!a!vast!bureaucracy!of!officials!such!as!scribes!! • Pharonic!building!programs!featuring!the!construction!of!temples,!tombs!and! palaces!employed!a!host!of!workers!from!all!ranks!of!society!! • Here!there!were!architects,!stonemasons,!artists,!carpenters,!metal!workers!and! sculptors!who!produced!great!masterpieces!for!which!this!period!Is!renowned!! !

Military!!
• Some!of!the!most!important!people!in!this!period!belonged!to!the!religious!and! military!groups!!
• The!increasing!prominence!of!Amun!throughout!this!period!ensured!status!and! wealth!to!high!ranking!officials!!
• The!military!which!was!responsible!for!the!creation!and!maintenance!of!the!empire,! also!enjoyed!the!benefits!of!high!social!rank!!
!
Mass!
• At!the!bottom!of!the!Egyptian!social!ladder!was!the!great!mass!of!the!population,! unskilled!workers,!especially!farmers,!on!whose!labour!the!rest!of!Egypt!depended! on!!!!
• Other!workers!included!fishermen,!herders!and!other!food!producers! • Below!them!again!was!the!army!of!servants!and!slaves!who!waited!on!their!masters!! Evidence:!



Seen!in!number!of!titles!accumulated!during!their!lives!which!they!liked!to!display! on!their!tombs!!

Role+of+Amun+and+the+Amun+Priesthood+

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The$power$of$the$Amun$priesthood.$
• Decreased!in!strength!and!power!when!Atenism!was!introduced;!the!persecution!of! Amun!had!a!detrimental!affect!on!the!Amun!priesthood!as!they!would!have!been!rid! of!employment!and!therefore!also!income.!They!lost!their!wealth,!status,!...
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