Air Pollution in Almaty

Topics: Automobile, Natural gas, Pollution Pages: 8 (2796 words) Published: April 11, 2013
Air Pollution in Almaty

1. Chapter 1 Introduction page 3

2. Chapter 2 “Literature Interview” page 6

3. Chapter 3 “Description of Results” page 13

4. Chapter 4 “Analysis of Results” page 20

5. Chapter 5 Conclusion page 26

6. Reference List page 28

Chapter 1 - Introduction
Almaty’s morning is a scene of prosperity. Hundreds of cars are stuck in the congestion on Dostyk Street. The Moskvich, which stands top-end Cadillacs next to those, is exhaling black smoke heavily. Hulking buses do not want to lose and make much more exhaust. Beside the traffic, the Metro is being built from dusk to dawn. What it comes down to is that air pollution in the largest city in Kazakhstan is thriving too. According to Mercer Human Resource Consulting’s 2007 Health and Sanitation Rankings, Almaty takes the 9th place in the list of most polluted cities in the world. And the problem is that approximately 80 % of the noxious gases and gas admixtures in Almaty are caused by vehicle emissions. To be more specific, 161.3 thousand tons out of the total annual 185 thousand tons of noxious air pollutants originate from traffic (Round table of Kazecology,2008). There has always been the problem of air pollution in Almaty. Even in Soviet times, when the city was considered one of the greenest cities in the country, the issue of ecology was already topical. During last ten years the number of vehicles in the city has increased significantly. Today every third citizen is a car owner. Furthermore 70 percent of the private vehicle fleet consists of old machines that do not meet modern environmental standards. What is even worse, air pollution in the city comes from the tailpipes of poorly maintained cars, a situation further aggravated by dirty fuel, or by gasoline and diesel that have been chemically altered to increase fuel volume and profit. Many of the local gas stations sell low quality fuel that has a higher than permitted level of noxious ingredients. The independent expertise center of oil products “Organic” has analyzed the fuel sold at a number of gas stations, but the full results of expertise are not publicly available and whether the examination of gas stations was useful is not known. They found that what was sold as 92 octane fuel was in fact 84 octane fuel, which violates the requirements on the content of gasoline and diesel oil, adds components that increase the octane number of fuel, and consequently lowers the quality of these oil products, which has have negative impact on the population’s health (Bakhautdinova, 2007). “If we don’t act now

and take necessary measures to reduce air pollution, it will be beyond our control” – Sultanbek Makezhanov says (the head of department of natural resources in Almaty). The fact is that 3 million people die each year from the effects of air pollution (World Health Organization, 2002). If we apply this evidence particularly to Almaty, the number of casualties from air pollution in the year 2007 would amount to 795, in the year 2008 – 519. Vehicles cause colossal emissions of harmful items. All these penetrate into our lungs. Polluted air may cause heart diseases and respiratory illnesses among others. The chronically good weather in summer may additionally worsen the conditions since the solar radiation is likely to contribute to high levels of near to ground-level ozone. Among the...
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