: 286 : Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry
Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry
We all need food to survive. Food is the basic need for all living beings, as it provides energy for doing work, and raw material for building and repair of various parts of the body. You know that our country has a large population, and therefore, we need to produce a lot of food. You also know that to produce such a large amount of food we need a large area of land. However, our land availability is limited. Indian scientists have experimented and researched and suggested ways and means by which more food can be grown than before, on the same piece of land. Improved methods of agriculture have led to the production of about 360m tonnes of plant food products and about 88m tonnes of animal food products. OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • state reasons for human dependence on plants and animals for food; • define and differentiate between agriculture and horticulture; • list and explain the various steps for raising an improved crop; • differentiate between manures and fertilizers with the help of examples; • explain various agricultural practices adopted for improvement of food such as, crop rotation and multiple cropping; • state the need for protection of crops; • explain the terms and give examples of weedicides and insecticides; • suggest methods of storage of agricultural produce; • explain the meaning of green revolution; • state the need for animal husbandry; • cite examples of three groups of domesticated animals; • explain methods adopted for management of live stock for better production; • state common diseases of domestic animals and their prevention. 32.1 HUMAN DEPENDENCE ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS FOR FOOD Our food items are either plant products, such as grains, vegetables and fruits or animal products like milk, egg, mutton, chicken etc.
Agricultural Practices and Animal Husbandry : 287 :
We eat various parts of plant as food. For example, grains of rice, wheat and corn are seeds; radish and carrot are roots; potatoes and ginger are the stem. We also eat leaves and stem of spinach and plenty of fruits. Thus, human beings depend on plants and animals for food. 32.2 AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES The branch of science which deals with methods of food production is known as agriculture. Besides studying the new methods of food production, in this branch of science we also study about how new and better varieties of crops can be grown, how animals and birds like cows, hens, etc. can be reared well and made to give more milk or better quality eggs? All these new methods which scientists develop come under agricultural practices. We need vegetables, fruits, cereals, pulses, etc. as food. For our clothes, we need the fibre of plants or animals. We get all these foods and fibres by farming or agriculture. ACTIVITY 32.1 Make a list of things which you use every day. Categorise those items which you get directly or indirectly from agriculture. Does your list look like the one given below? For easy reading, agricultural products have been divided into the following groups as given in the table 32.1. Table 32.1: Various categories of food items Examples Sorghum (Jowar), Ragi (finger millet) and Bajra (pearl millet) Arhar (Tur), Black gram (Urad), Green gram (Moong), and Bengal gram (Channa) Beans Peas, Soyabean, Cowpea, Lentil Oilseeds Mustard, Groundnut, Soyabean, Sunflower, Linseed, Castor and Cotton seed Root crops Carrot, Turnip, Sweet potato Tuber crops Potato, Tapioca, Ginger and Turmeric Sugar crops Sugarcane and Beet root Plantation crops Coffee, Tea, Rubber and Coconut Category Millets Pulses
32.3 HORTICULTURE Did you observe that something is missing from the list of food items which we eat every day. What is it that we have not listed here in table 32.1? Yes, we have neither included vegetables nor fruits in this list. Vegetables and fruits are essential items...
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