(Concept, Aspects, Evolution of Philippine Agrarian
Structure, Present Agrarian Problems)
REYES, Antonette | NORIEGA, Stella | ALFONSO, Joyce Kristin
• refers to a broad program to improve not only the
productivity, but also the income levels of the
agrarian sector, to generate and expand
employment, and reduce poverty in the countryside
• human relations pertaining to land
• an integrated set of measures designed to eliminate
obstacles to economic and social development
arising out of defects in the agrarian structure
• refers to full range of measures that may be taken
to improve or remedy the defects in the relations
among men with respect to their lands.
Aspects of Agrarian Reform
• Political Aspect – land is/was used to capture political power. (e.g. colonizers, politicians, etc.)
• Economic Aspect – agricultural sector is the dominant
industry in the Philippines making it as an agricultural
• Moral Aspect – people have the right to a piece of land, if not for profit, at least for the construction of their home. • Religious Aspect – ‘’In the beginning, God created the Earth. The Earth was without form and void, On the third
day, God said: Let the Earth bring forth grass, the herb that yield seed, and the fruit tree that yields fruit according to its kind, whose seed in it is in itself, on the Earth.’’
- Genesis 1:1 and 11
• Legal Aspect - Constitution
Art. II Sec. 21 – The state shall promote
rural development in agrarian reform.
Art. XII Sec. 1 – The state shall promote
and full employment based on sound
and agrarian reform.
Art. XIII Sec. 4,5,6,7,8 – The state shall:
- undertake an agrarian reform program founded on the
right of farmers and regular farmworkers who are
landless, to own directly or collectively lands..
- recognize the right of the farmers, farm owners,
- apply the principles of agrarian reform
- provide incentives to landowners to invest the proceeds.
Right to life, liberty and property
EVOLUTION OF PHILIPPINE
Pre-Spanish Period (AD 1-1565)
• Agrarian literature conveys that the pre-spanish
community of the natives was abundant of
resources, though not yet harnessed by the people
of ancient society. The resources of the land was
enough livelihood for the natives spearheaded by a
datu.The people then were nomads.
• The ancient people practiced agriculture.
1. Kaingin system – land was cleared through burning
2. Tillage system – land was plowed and then planted
3. Landlordism – chieftain class, nobility, and the
freemen owned vast lands
1588, King of Spain ordered the distribution of land
to those Spanish officers who helped in pacifying
Encomienda System Lands granted to encourage
spanish settlers or to reward soldiers who have
served the crown; spaniards’ right to collect taxes
or tributes from the inhabitants of an area assigned
to him. (300 inhabitants, 2,000 value of land)
The first encomienda was given to colonizers by
Miguel Lopez de Legaspi in Cebu on
January 1, 1571.
: keep peace and order, protect the
Duties of Encomendero
inhabitants, christianize and educate the people, most
importantly, to collect tax.
Kinds of Encomienda
Royal – owned by King of Spain
Private – owned by private persons or charitable inst.
Eclessiastical – owned by religious orders
Rizal’s Findings on Calamba’s Agrarian Problem
The profits of Dominican friars increased because of
the arbitrary increase of rentals paid by the tenants,
hacienda owner never contributed a single centavo
for the improvement of agriculture, and high rates
were charged the tenants for delayed payment of
rentals. (Gov. Emilio Terrero took action..)
American Occupation (1898-1946)
• The landholding situation become more wellentrenched into the...
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