A large number of organizations and people are developing interest in project management. In past times, project management majorly cantered on supplying schedule and resourcefulness to top management in few industries like construction and military. Recent project management comprises of much more processes, and people in most industry and countries can manage project irrespective of its size but not all of these project has come out as a success. The definition of the project can be seen from a different perspective, but basically, a project is a unique temporary process with known objectives or deliverables which has a definite start and finish date (duration). Different scholars have their own view of the term project. “An organized undertaking, limited in time to achieve specific objectives" Eskeland (1985). PMBOK (2013) gave a more precise definition of a project as a temporary effort applied to build a spectacular, product, service or achieve a desired result and also described project management as the use of methods , skills and tools in any project activity in to make the project a success. There are basically four project methodology in the project landscape which are Traditional, Agile, Extreme and Emertse Wysocki (2009). For the scope of this essay, a brief insight of both traditional and agile methods will be given and then, critically analysed in terms how they each methodology can lead to the success and failure of a project. Risk management will also be discussed on and thereafter, a tool that can help achieve a successful project and finally, conclusion.
Overview of TPM and APM
Traditional Project Management (TPM) is the oldest form of project management and has been in existence since 1950s (Wysocki, 2009). During its early stage, TPM was simply an array of phases such as define, plan, execute, and close with tasks clearly know at each phase Statistics from data collected from over 10,000 project managers has shown that 20 percent of project executed globally fall in this category (Wysocki, 2009). Due to its longevity and simplicity, many project managers tend to adapt this form of project management. TPM consists of Linear and Incremental Project Management Life Cycle (PMLC). The Linear PMLC has 5 process groups or phases which are completed in a sequential order. These groups are Scope, Plan, Launch, Monitor, Control and finally, Closing in ascending order. According to Wysocki (2009, p329), “The Linear PMLC model is change intolerant”. Intolerant in the sense that it does not support scope changes. Linear PMLC has two types; Rapid Linear PMLC model which is also referred to as the Client-Focused model and Feature-Driven Development (FDD) Linear PMLC model. Incremental PMLC has the same five process groups as Linear PMLC followed sequentially. Scope changes request occurs here, which makes it tolerant hereby leading to project success. Solutions to the goals of each process groups are released in parts. Waterfall approach was proposed by Winston Royce in 1970. Before then, early software developers used the “code and fix” method and it was difficult to implement. In this approach, the process groups or phases are planned and scheduled before beginning to work on them, which makes it a good example of a plan-driven process (Sommerville, 2011). Advancing to the next phase is only possible when the previous phase has been finalized and perfected. The Waterfall approach is a type of Traditional Project Management. The term agile methods was embraced in 2001 by an assembly of prominent software engineer at a gathering in Utah, USA where number of key standards were established by the group members – alluded to as the agile manifesto(Dawson, 2009). Various scholars have come up with a different definition of APM but Hass (2007) describes APM as a process constituting of both iterative and incremental which are of high importance and demands the project team members and stakeholders to be, which demands...
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