Two paragraphs: What, Where, Why, When and Historical Significance
The Daniel Moynihan Report and response to the report
What: The negro Family: The case for National Action
Focused on the deep roots of black poverty in America and concluded controversially that the relative absence of nuclear families (those having both a father and mother present) would greatly hinder further progress toward economic and political equality. WHY: The report argued that the rise in single-mother families was not due to lack of jobs but rather to a destructive vein in ghetto culture that could e traced back to slavery and Jim Crow discrimination. -The Moynihan Report argued that the black family, “battered and harassed by discrimination” is the fundamental source of the weakness of he Negro community
When: 1965 Moynihan report
The report was view as . it’s affecting out the black homes. Moynihan working for the
--Big problem in black family because the men were not present and until something is changed in the black family --REACTION: 70 % of children are born in single parent home. His data was correct but he did not talk to the right people about the issues he enough – the report was process with arrogance leaving a bad taste in many peoples mouths, which undermine the validity of the report. Misleading.
Physical expansion of the Black Belt in Chicago / Creation of a Chicago community / Economic Self- Sufficiency
What: Fugitive slaves and freedmen established the city’s first black community in the 1840s. the great Migrations from 1910 to 1960 brought hundreds of thousands of blacks from the South to Chicago, where they became an urban population.
Where: South Side of Chicago
Why: blacks created churches, community organizations, important businesses, and great music and literature. African Americans of all classes built community on the South Side of Chicago for decades before the Civil Rights Movement. Their goal was to build a community where blacks could purse life with the same rights as whites.
When: (1910-1945) he term “Black Belt” was commoly used to identify the predominately African American community on the Chicago’s South Side.
Historical Significance: Industry buildup for World War 1 pulled thousands of workers to the North as did the rapid expansion of railroads, and the meatpacking and steel industries. Between 1915 and 1960, hundreds of thousands of black southerners migrated to Chicago to ecaspe violence and segregation, and to seek economic freedom. They went from being a mostly rural poulation to one that was mostly urban. The migration of African Americans from the rural south to the urban north became a mass movement. The Great Migration radically transformed Chicago, both politically and culturally.
-Blacks receive better schooling for the children. After 1940 when the second larger wave of migration started, black migrants tended to be already urbanized, from southern cities and towns. They were the most ambitious, better educated with more urban skills to apply in their new homes.
-By 1940s, 3,00 African Americans were arriving every week in Chicago—stepping off the trains from the South and making their ways to neghbohoods they had learned about from friends and the Chicago defender.
How did Harlem become an African American neighborhood in Manhattan?
When: Since the 1920, Harlem has been known as a major African American residential, cultural and business center
Where: Black residents began to arrive in masses in 1905, with numbers fed by the Great Migration. In the 1920s and 1930s, Centreal and West harlem were the focus of the Harlem Renaissance, an outpouring of artistic work without precedent in the American black Community.
Significance: harlem has been experiencing social and ecominic gentrification but still sufferes from many social problems. Large portion of the population depend on the government for income support.
-Harlem, many of the country’s best and brightest black advocates, artists, entrepreneurs, and intellectuals had situated themselves in Harlem. They brought with them not only the institutions and businesses necessary to support themselves, but a vast array of talent and ambitions. The area soon became known as “the Black Mecca” and “the capital of black America”
Harlem Riot: Great Drepression> shut many blacks out of the American Dream. The increased economic tension of the Drepression caused black leaders to shift their focus from Arts and culture to the financial and social issues of the time.
Blacks and whit shop-owners didn’t get along well, which lead to 1935 Harlem riot, the first race riot.