African American Segregation and Civil Rights Movement

Topics: African American, Martin Luther King, Jr., United States Pages: 6 (2548 words) Published: May 23, 2012
African Americans have faced great difficulties in owning and having a voice and respect in the early years in the United States of America. For far too long, they have faced oppression by the whites. However, they no longer accepted the mistreatment and double standards they faced and took a stand and fought for they believed in. Even though African Americans did not have much rights as families, the fact that they stood up for themselves, to bring peace, honor, and freedom was enough so that they can start a new life and many new opportunities to start a whole new way of living. What is a Civil right? Civil rights are a demand for certain types of people to earn their rights which was taken away from them by certain individuals or groups. There are many types of civil rights movements that involve a person to have the right to say what they want whether verbally or written, (i.e. press), their chances to vote and the right to be in public places as they please. The African American Civil rights movement started around 1955 and it ended around 1968. The goal of this movement was to exile the discrimination that was taken place in the United States. This discrimination affected many African Americans lives- and by fighting for civil rights, they were trying to ensure a new life that would grant them the rights to vote in the states in the south. The black movement granted African Americans the dignity they have been fighting for, places in politics, a say in economics and most importantly independence from white autocracy. The biggest civil right act was resulted by the accomplishments of the 13th and 14th amendment. The 13th amendment destroyed slavery that was present in the United States. As stated by President Lincoln in 1863, “all persons held as slaves within any State, or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” (Our documents, Abolition of slavery, 1865) The Swann Vs Charlotte – Mecklenburg board of education was a major case in the United States that affected many students and the majority of the African American community. This case has been taken seriously by the Supreme Court because of integration of busing in public schools. It was held in the state of North Carolina and even though it was an up to date state compared to many other southern states, its battle with the idea of integration wasn’t as strong as other states surrounding them. The segregation has ended in the community. However, even though this is the case and segregation was removed from the system, many African Americans still attended all black schools. The Swann case was brought to court in regards of a little boy his name was James Swann, he was of ten years old among other children and families as well. Little James swann’s father was a theology professor as well, so he was a well educated man in the society. In the year 1965 the Judge ruled in the favor of the board of education because he claimed that there was no compulsion in the constitution that forced them to increase racial mixing. However, after a while the case was then filed again and handled by a different judge and this was his very first important case to deal with in the federal bench. Even though his true feelings were against racial integration in busses, he decided to set aside his feelings in the matter and to follow the constitutional requirements which were to avoid segregation. People often question what the Jim Crow system was and what it represented. The Jim Crow system was a racial social class which functioned mostly in southern states. It started around 1877 and continued until the 1960’s. Those who followed the Jim Crow system basically looked upon it as merely a way of living. African Americans basically were considered second class citizens of these states. Sadly, Priests and ministers also gave a hand in the segregation of whites and blacks....
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