The fall of the Songhay Empire starts chapter thirteen. The height of power was under Askiya Muhammad Ture, during the 16th century. Towards the late 16th century the royal power weakened, because of short reigns and dynastic disputes. This caused growth of rivals, which drew off trade from Songhay domination, gold from Akan forest to go to Europeans coast, and no external threat visible. The Moroccan invasion also contributed to the fall of Songhay. The Moroccan motive was to control and revive the trans-Saharan gold trade. With a modernized, professional, and well-equipped Moroccan forces crossed the Sahara in two months and took Songhay completely by surprise. Moroccan army had an easy victory during the battle of Tondibi on March 12, 1591, and seized and looted Timbuktu and Jenne. While the Songhay army regrouped in heartland of Dendi, the Moroccan occupation from Gao to Jenne brought a long-term reward. The occupation continued through the 17th century by expatriates (Arma) who act independently from homeland from mid-century. In 1737 Tuareg nomads seized Timbuktu and the Arma rule collapsed. Songhay split into component parts, Bamana kingdom of Segu.
The growth of the powerful Kanem was by the 11th century, because of nomad clans, raiding, and trading across the Sahara. Southern captives were exchanged for North African horses. By the late 11th century Kanuri-speaking Saifawa clan established an Islamic dynasty. Kanem reached the height of its power during the reign of Mai Dunama Dibalami from 1210-1248. With a force of 40,000 horsemen Mai Dunama Dibalami extended control north to Fezzan and raided southwest of Lake Chad, which increased Islam. The 14th century Borno power overshadowed Kanem, because Kanem was over stretched and suffered with dynastic problems. In the 1400 Saifawa dynasty moved Kanem capital to better grassland region of Borno; the two stated effectively combined with Borno being the dominant partner. The 15th century expanded...
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