Submitted in partial fulfillment of
The requirements for
Academic Research and Critical Reflection in Adult Education
Bachelor of Education in Adult Education Program
Centre for Adult Education and Community Outreach
Faculty of Education, Brock University
St. Catharines, Ontario
Since prehistoric times the ‘work’ of adults were taught to children to prepare them for adulthood (Sleight, 1993). As centuries passed, the kinds of work, the skills needed, and the tools used to do the new work had to change. In order to manage these changes in the complexity, volume, and content of work, job training evolved. "As man invented tools, weapons, clothing, shelter, and language, the need for training became an essential ingredient in the march of civilization" (Steinmetz, 1976). As tools became more complex, different ways of training developed to be more effective and efficient. "Instructional practices were developed that served the needs of the times, evolving into accepted instructional paradigms" (Berthower & Smalley, 1992). Training practices developed at different times, some have changed through the years, but it is claimed that all are still used today, depending on the training need and corporate situation (Sleight, 1993).
“Training is different from education” (Sleight, 1993). Training teaches the learner to do a specific task, such as running a machine, or making a shirt while education is instruction in the more general knowledge of the society, such as the history of the society, or knowledge of mathematics (McGehee & Thayer, 1961). Nevertheless, (Harrison, 2005) argues that training and development is more than just teaching a task. Training and development (T&D) is an ‘organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in an organizational setting’. Garavan, Costine, &
References: Berthower, D., & Smalley, K. (1992, May/June). An instructional paradigm for training in the 21st century. Performance and Instruction, pp. 26-31. Follman, J., Hall, R., & Omotade, J. (2012, May). Self-Directed Learning in the Workplace: A Future of Theory in Action, or Just More Rhetoric? Washington: George Washington University. Garavan, T. N., Costine, P., & Heraty, N. (1995). Taining and Developemnt: Concepts, Attitudes, and Issues. Training and Developemtn in Ireland, 1. Harrison, R. (2005). Learning and Development. London: CIPD Publishing. Hatcher, T. G. (1997). The Ins and Outs of Self-Directed Learning. Training and Development (51) 2, 34-39. Lambert, M. F. (2011). Holistic Training in a Corporate Environment. Austin: The University of Texas at Austin. Marsick, V. J., & Watkins, K. E. (1997). Lessons from Informal and Incidental Learning. In J. Burgoyne, & M. (. Reynolds, Management Learning: Intergrating Perspectives in Theory and Practice (pp. 295-311). London: Sage. McGehee, W., & Thayer, P. W. (1961). Training in Business and Industry. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2007). Learning in Adulthood. A Comprehensive Guide (3rd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Ota, C., DiCarlo, C. F., Burts, D. C., Laird, R., & Gioe, C. (2006). Training and the Needs of Adult Learners. Journal of Extension, 1-4. Rachal, J. (2002). Andragogy 's Detectives. Adult Education QUarterly, 3.210-228. Sleight, D. (1993, December). A Developmental History of Training. Retrieved from Michigan State University: www.msu.edu Steinmetz, C Sutton, B., & Stephenson, J. (2005). A Review of "Return on Investment ' in Training in the Corporate Sector and Possible Impications for College-based Programmes. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 355-375. Tannenbaum, S., & Yukl, G. (1992). Training and Development in Work Organization. Annual Review of Psychology, 43.