Advertising

Topics: Advertising, Brand, Cognition Pages: 34 (10605 words) Published: June 18, 2013
The Role of Consumer Involvement in Determining Cognitive Response to Broadcast Advertising

Laura M. Buchholz Robert E. Smith

This paper investigates the role of involvemeni in deurmmitxg consumer response to radio and TV commercials. Afur reviewing reletani Uterature. a summary model thai focuses on the amount and type of cognitive elaboration and subsequent ejects on consumer recognition of the brand and message points is presented. Hypotheses are developed that predict interaction ejfects between the type of brondcasi media and the level of consumer tm-oltement in the commercial. A study is conducted where mode of presentation (radio versus television) and let«l of consumer involvement (low versus high) are experimentally manipulated. Analysis of variance of the data provide general support for the hypotheses. Other results and the implications for advertising research and practice are discussed.

Laura Buchholz is a graduate student at Indiana University. Robert E. Smith (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison) is associate professor of marketing, Indiana University, The avithora chanlc Frank DiSilvestro and Dan McQuiston for their contribution to this study.

Advertising research has provided considerable evidence regarding consumer response to persuasive messages. Numerous models that explain consumers' cognitive, affective, and conative reactions have been advanced and tested. As theories become more detailed, greater discrimination is possible in understanding the important dimensions of consumer response. However, further research is needed on many fronts, including investigations of differences that exist in message processing among alternative advertising media. For example, two types of broadcast media—radio and TV—have obvious differences that could seriously affect the way consumers process persuasive messages. Despite calls for research on these issues (Edell and Keller 1989; Greenwald and Leavitt 1984), few mtxiels distinguish between radio and TV message processing. The importance of these broadcast media to advertisers is evident by the fact that they spent $26 billion on TV and $7-7 billion on radio in 1988 (Marketer's Guide To Media 1989). In addition, these media are often used together in "coordinated media campaigns" (Edell and Keller 1989). To most effectively communicate their message, creative teams and media planners need to understand differences in the way consumers process radio and TV commercials. Knowledge of the particular strengths and weaknesses of different broadcast media would represent a practical advance of marketing communications theory. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to review issues relevant to processing differences between broadcast media and to advance a sumtnary model of the important dimensions. In addition, a study is reported that tests the key propositions of the model.

Background Literature
The most basic difference between radio and TV is the number of sensory modes involved. Radio messages consist of only auditory stimuli and audience processing consists of only listening. TV messages project both auditory and visual stimuli, and audience processing consists of listening and viewing, ©Journal of Advertising Volume 20, Nutnber 1. 1991. Pages 4-17

Processing Auditory Information— Consumer listening. Listening was defined by Barker (1971) as: "the selective process of attending to, bearing, understanding, and remembering aural symbols." This definition focuses upon cognitive processes that register, comprehend, and retain auditory information. The memory component was considered necessary by Barker (1971) because without some lasting vestige of the input stimuli, no real evidence of the entire listening process exists. It is also important to note that people vary in their motivation and ability to perform the necessary steps in listening, making this a complex process not just a simple skill (Barker 1971). In addition, Spearritt (1962) notes...

References: Age Best TV Commercials of the Year—I9S6." Fred Danzig, ed., Chicago: Crain Communications Inc. Barker, L. L. (1971). Listening Behavior, Prentice-Hall: Englewood ClifFs. N.J. Bostrom. R. N. and C. L. Bryant (1980), "Factors in the Retention of Information Presented Orally: The Roie of Short-Term Listening." Thfi Wesurn journal of Speech
Communication, 44 (Spring). 137-145. Marketer^ Guide To Media (1989), Gerri Lee, Bostrom, R. N. and E. S. Waldhart (1980), ed. New York, NY: A/S/M Communica"Components in Listening Behavior: The tions. Roie of Short-Term Memory," Human Mitchell, Andrew A. and Jerry C. Olson Commumcation Research. 6. (3. Spring). 221(1981). "Are Product Attribute Beliefs the 227. only Mediator of Advertising Effects on Childers, T L. and M. J. Houston (1984). Brand Attitude?" Journal of Marketing Re"Conditions for a Picture-Superiority Efsearch. 18. (August), 318-332. fect on Consumer Memory," Journal of Murdock. B.B.. Jr. (1967). "Auditory and VisConsumer Research. 11 (September), 643ual Stores in Short Term Memory," Acta 654. Pyychologica. 27 (Topic 4). 316-324. Craik, Fergus I. M. and R. A. Lockhart (1972). Murdock, B. B., Jr. (1968), "Serial Order Ef"Levels of Processing: A Framework for fects in Short Term Memory," Journal of Memory Research," Journal of Verbal Ejcperimental Ps5icholog:y Monograph SuppleLearning and Verbal Behavior. 11 (6). 671ment, 76 (April), M 5 . 684. Murdock, B. B., Jr. (1969) "Where or When: Edell, Julie A. and Kevin L. Keller (1989), "The Modaliry Effects as a Function of Temporal Information Processing of Coordinated and Spatial Distribution of Information," Media Campaigns." Journal of Marketing Joiirnal of Verbal Learning and Verbal BeResearch. 26 (May), 149-163. havior, 8 (June), 378-383. Greenwald. A. G. and C. Leavitt (1984). "AuNichols. R. G. (1957), "Listening is a Ten Part dience Involvement in Advertising: Four Skill." Nationi Business. 45 (July), 4. Levels." Journal on Conjumer Research. 11 Nichols, R. G. and L. A. Stevens (1957), "Lis(June), 581-592. tening to People," Harvard Business Revieu ', Holbrook, Morris B. (1978), "Beyond Atti35 (September-October), 90-97. tude Structure," Journal of Marlceting RePauk, Walter (1984). "Forgetting and Remcmsearch, 15 (November), 546-556. benng," Hou; To Study In College, HoughHouston. M.J.. T L. Childers, and S. E. Heckton Mifflin Co., 82-113. ler (1987), "Picture-Word Consistency and Petty. Richard E. and John T Cacioppo (1983), the Elaborative Processing of Advertise"Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuaments," Journal of Marketing Research, 24 sion: Application to Advertising" in Ad(November), 359-369. vertising and Consumer Psychology, Larry Krugman, Herbert E. (1965), "The Impact of Percy and Arch G. Woodside, eds., LexTelevision Advertising: Learning Without ington, MA: Lexington Books. Involvement," Public Opinion Quarterly. 29 Petty, Richard E., John T Cacioppo, and Dav(Fall). 349-356. id Schumann (1983), "Central and PeriphLaczniak. Russell N., Darrel D. Muehling, and eral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: Sanford Grossbart (1989), "Manipulating The Moderating Role of Involvement," Message Involvement in Advertising ReJournal of Consumer Research. 10 (Septemsearch," Journal of Advertising. 18 (2). 28ber), 135-146. 38. Siegel, A. W. and J. P Allik (1973), "A DeLeigh, James H. and Anil Menon (1987), "Auvelopmental Study of Visual and Auditory dience Involvement Effects on the InforShort-Term Memory." Journal of Verbal mation Processing of Umbrella Print AdverLeaming and Vferbal Behavior, 12 (Augusr), tisements," Journal o/Advertising, 16 (3), 3409-418. 12. Smith, Robert E. and William R. Swinyard Maclnnis, D. J. and L. L. Price (1987), "The (1983), "Attitude-Behavior Consistency: Tbe Role of Imagery in Information Processing: Impact of Product Trial Versus AdvertisReview and Extensions," journal of Coning," Journal of Marketing Research. 20, sumer Research. 13 (March), 473-491. (August), 257-267. Maclnnis, D.J. and Bernard J. Jaworski (1989), Smith, Robert E. and William R. Swinyard "Information Processing from Advertise(1988), "Cognitive Response to Advertising ments: Toward an Integrative Framework," and Trial: Belief Strength. Belief ConfiJournal o/Marketing, 53 (4), 1-24. dence and Product Curiosity," Journal of Advertising 17 (3), 3-14. MacKenzie, Scott B. and Richard J. LutE (1989), "An Empirical Examination of the StrucSpearritt, Doriald (1962). Listening Compretural Antecedents of Attitude Toward tbe hension—A Factorial Analysis. Melbourne: Ad in an Advertising Pretesting Context," G. W. Green &. Sons PTY. LTD. Journal of Marketing, 53 (April). 48-65. Wright. Peter L. (1973), "The Cognitive ProMacKenzie. Scott B., Richard J. Lutz, and cesses Mediating Acceptance of AdvertisGeorge E. Belcb (1986). "The Role of Ating," Journal of Marketing Research, 10, titude Toward tbe Ad as a Mediator of Ad(February), 53-62. vertising Effectiveness: A Test of Competing Wright, Peter L (1974), "Analyzing Media EfExplanations," Journal of Marketing Refects on Advertising Responses," Public search. 23 (May). 130-143. Opinion Quarterly, 36 (Summer), 192-205.
16
Wrigbt,PeterL.(1975),"FactorsAflFectingResistance to Advertising," JoHmalo/Comumer Research, 1 (June), 1-9.
Wrigbt, Peter L. (1980), "Message Evoked Tboughts; Persuasion Research Using Thought Verbalizations," journal of Consumer Rexarch, 7 (September), 151-175.
Received Nowmber 22.1989. Revision accepted for publication February 7. 1990. ^
APPENDIX Coding Definitions for Cognitive Responses
I. Type of Thought: A. Product-Related Thoughts. These thoughts refer to the brand or product class (computers). TTiey include: 1. Identification and /or evaluation of product attributes. 2. Statements related to the performance of the product. 3. Statements related to the consequences of using the product. 4. Questions about the brand or product class. 5. Statements indicating how the product could solve a problem. B. 'hAessage-RelatedThoughts. Any thought that identifies or evaluates execution aspects of the advertising message. 1. Statements regarding the effectiveness of the ad. 2. Statements expressing interest in the ad. 3. Questions about the ad. 4. Statements regarding attributes of the ad. C. SouTcc Related TKoughts. The source is defined as the perceived purveyor of the message. This category includes any thought that relates to the credibility and/or effectiveness of the source of product information (references to the "advertiser" or the "source"). In this study the source would be the sponsor/manufacturer (Apple referred to as a company rather than as a product). 1. Statements regarding the perceived expertise of the source (i.e., the ability of the source to make accurate asscrtations). 2. Statements regarding the perceived trustworthiness erf the source (i.e., the willingness of the source to make accurate assertations). 3. Statements regarding the effectiveness of the source (i.e., the source 's likability, similarity, confidence, status, etc.). D. Unrelated Thoughts. All thoughts not fitting the above categories. II. Intent of Thought: A. Positive Statements. Any statement that is in favor of or otherwise supports the product/message/source. B. Neutral Statements. Declarative statements regarding the product/message/source that do not indicate a favor^le or unfavorable intent. C. Negative Statements. Any statement that is unfavorable toward the product/message/source. Any question that derogates or challenges assertions made about the product/message/source. D. Curiosity Statements. Any statement that expresses a desire for additional information about the product/message/source. These statements are distinguishable from negative statements based on your judgment of the subject 's intent. III. Presence of Personal Connections: Thoughts are considered personal connections if respondents connect the brand, product class, or elements in the advertisement to aspects of their own life (e.g., "I thought about using the computer," or "This computer would be great for my accounting problems)."
17
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Humour in Advertising Research Paper
  • The Effects of Music in Advertising Essay
  • Essay on The Elaboration Likelihood Model Applied to Internet Advertising
  • Advertising Essay
  • Advertising Essay
  • Advertising Essay
  • Advertising Essay
  • advertising Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free